The Extent of the Manor of Borley

An 'extent' is a description of the estimate of the area and value of a manor, including a list of the tenants, with their holdings, rents and services, compiled on the testimony of a sworn jury of the inhabitants of the manor.
Remarkably, the population of the parish had not changed significantly by the end of Queen Victoria's reign
The income from Borley to the lord of the Manor would have been considered to be good

.s.d
Money paid by free tenants 1 12s 6d
Money dues paid by villein tenants 4 14 8d
Services performed by villein tenants 7 7 6¾d
Arable land in the demesne 15
Mowing meadow in demesne 7 6 3d
Enclosed pasture in demesne 2 2
Rent of mill 3
Court dues, fishing rights36

Forty six persons are named in the extent. Seven are indicated in as free tenants, seven as villains or customary holders, and five as cotemen. If these all lived on the manor and if they included the whole population, at an estimate of five persons to each land-holder, the number of inhabitants would be about two hundred and thirty. According to the census of 1831, there were in Borley forty-four families, forty one inhabited houses, and two hundred and ten inhabitants, a striking suggestion of fixedness in rural population.
The mediaeval value of the benifice is given at 10, the value in 1900 being 240 a year.
Foxearth & District Local History Society

BORLEY MANOR OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY, A.D.1308

English Manorial Documents," Translations and Reprints from the original Sources of European History, E. P. Cheyney, tr., vol. 3, no. 5 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1907), pp. 3-32], printed Trans. Essex Arch. Sec. , n. s., xviii, pp. 262-269

Extent of the Manor of Borley made there on Tuesday next after the feast of Saint Matthew the Apostle, A.D. 1308, in the first year of the reign of King Edward, son of King Edward, in the presence of John le Doo, steward by the hands of William of Folesham, clerk, on the oath of Philip, the reeve of Borley, Henry Lambert, Dennis Rolf, Richard at Mere, Walter Johan and Robert Ernald, tenants of the said vill of Borley. These all having been sworn, declare there is one messuage well and suitably built; that is sufficient for the products of the manor, 4 acres, by estimation. The grass there is worth yearly by estimation, 2s. And the curtilage there is worth yearly 12d, sometimes more sometimes less, according to its value. The fruit garden there is worth yearly as in apples, grapes, perhaps 5s. and sometimes more.
Total 8s.

And it is to be known that the lord is the true patron of the church of Borley, and the said church is worth yearly according to taxation, in grain, in offerings, in dues, and in smaller tithes, 10.

And there is one water-mill in the manor, and it is worth yearly on lease, 60s. And the fishpond in the mill dam, with the catch of eels from the race, worth yearly, without waste, 5s, and the grass from it is worth yearly, 5s; and the feeding of swine there is worth yearly, 12d. And there is a certain other wood called Chalvecroft, which contains with the ditches, 5 acres. And the herbage there is worth yearly 2s 6d, and the underbrush there is worth 3s, and the feeding of swine there is worth yearly, 6d. Total value ,17s

There are there, of arable land in the demesne, in different fields, 300 acres of land, by the smaller hundred. And it is worth yearly, on lease, 15, at the price of 12d per acre, Total acreage, 300. Total value 15.

And it is to be known that the perch of land in that manor contains 16 feet, in measuring land. And an acre can be sown suitably with 2 bushels of wheat, with 2 bushels of rye, ,with 2 bushels of peas, with 3 bushels of oats, and this sown broadcast, with 4 bushels of barley, even measure. And each plough should be joined with 4 oxen and 4 draught horses. And a plough is commonly able to plough an acre of land a day, and sometimes more.

There are likewise of mowing meadow in various places 29 acres and 1 rood. This si worth yearly, 7 6s 3d, at 5s an acre. Total acreage, 29 A, 1 R. Total pence 7 6s 3d.

There are likewise of enclosed pasture, of 28 acres, and this is worth annually 42s. at 18d per acre. Of this sixteen acres are assigned to the dairy for the cows, and 12 for the oxen and young bullocks. Total 42s.

It is to be known that the lord can have in the common pasture of Borley, along with the use of the fresh meadows and of the demesne of the lord, in the open time, 100 sheep, by the greater hundred. And their pasture, per head, is worth 2d, yearly, and not more, on account of the resumption of the food of the shepherd. Total, 20s.

There is likewise, a certain court of free tenants of the lord and of the customary (tenants) meeting every three weeks. And the fines and perquisites thence, along with the view of frank pledge, are worth 20s a years.

Free tenants

William, son of Ralph
...a Knight, holds from the lord 18 acres, by paying thence, yearly, at Easter, 18d, and at the feast of St Michael, 18d.
Henry of Latheley
...holds from the lord, 50 acres of land, by paying thence at Easter, 21d, and at the feast of St Michael , 21d. And he is bound to attendance at the court.
John of Lystone
....holds from the lord in Borley, 40 acres of land and 4 acres of meadow, by paying therefrom, yearly, at the feast of St Michael, 6d, for all services.
William Joy
...holds from the lord one messuage and 20 acres of land, and 2 acres of meadow, and half an acre of pasture, paying therefrom, yearly, at the feast of St Michael , 12d, and he is bound to attendance at court.
Hugh at Fen
...holds from the lord, 6 acres of land, and a half acre of meadow, and a rood of pasture, by paying thence, yearly, at the aforesaid two periods, 2s 9d. And he is bound to attendance at court.
Reginald Crummlond
...holds from the lord, 12 acres of land, by paying thence, annually 10s. And he is bound attendance at court.
William le Yatcher
...holds from the lord in the demesne and in the service 2 acres of land and a half an acre of meadow by paying thence yearly at Easter and at the feast of St Michael in equal portions, 7d. And he is bound to attendance at court.

Molmen

The tenants of the land of Simon of Aunsel, viz,

John Aunsel
...holds a cottage and 1 rood of land;
Roger at Remete
4 acres and 3 roods of land;
Richard Gakoun
2 acres of land;
William Oslock
1 acre of land ;
Augustus, the clerk
... 2 acres and a half of land ;
Walter Morel
3 acres of land;;
Denis Rauf
1 rood of meadow.
And they pay thenceAnd they will provide two men to reap for one Bedrepe in autumn at the will of the lord with the lord's food, as is explained below. The price of each service is 2d. And they are bound to attendance at court.

William Oslock holds from the lord, 1 messuage and 20 acres of land and 1 rood of meadow by paying thence yearly at the aforesaid two periods, 4s; and of Unthiel at the purification of Blessed Mary, 2s 2d and three farthings, and at Christmas, I hen at the price of 11 and a half pence. And he must reap in the autumn for one bedrepe by means of two men at the food of the lord as above. And he owes merchet, and he is bound to attendance at court.

Total rent of assize of the period of St Michael. s. d.
From free tenants98
Item
Total of the period of the Purification, of Unthield, yearly,45 ½
Total rent for the Easter period, 8 2
Item, 5
Total of hens at the Christmas period, 3

Customary Tenants

Walter Johan
messuage and 10 acres by payment thence yearly at the festival of Purification of the Blessed Mary, of Hunthield , ,4s,5 and a hal;f pence; and at Easter, 20 and a half pence; and at the feast of St Michael, 26 and a half pence; and at Christmas, 1 hen and a half, the hen being of the price of 1 and a half pence. And from the feast of St Michael, at 26 and a half pence; and at the feast of Christmas, 1 hen and a half, the hen being the price of 1 and a half pence. And from the feast of St Michael ( September 29 ) to the feast of St Peter ad Vincula (August 1) in each week 3 works with one man without the food of the lord, the price of the work being a half pence, three weeks being excepted, that is to sat Christmas week, Easter week and Whitsuntide, in which they will not work unless it is absolutely required by necessity for binding the grain in autumn and for carrying hay. And he shall plough with his plough, whether he has to join or not, 4 acres of the lord without the food of the lord, the price of each acre being 5 d. of which 2 acres are to be in the season for planting wheat and 2 for oats. And he shall carry the manure of the lord of the manor with his horse and cart at the food of the lord; that is , each a loaf and a half of rye bread, of the size of 40 loaves to the quarter, and to weed the grain of the lord so long as there be any weeding to be done, and it shall be reckoned in his services. And he ought to mow the meadow of the lord; that is to say, 1 acre and a third part of an acre, according to the suitable measure. And it will be reckoned in his service, that is for each acre, 3 weeks work.
And it will be known that whenever he, along with the other customary tenants of the vill, shall mow the meadow of Rainholm, they shall have, according to custom, 3 bushels of wheat for bread and 1 ram of the price of 18d, and 1 jar of butter, and 1 cheese next to the best from the dairy of the lord, and salt and oatmeal for their porridge, and all the morning milk from all of the cows of the whole dairy at that time. And he shall toss, carry and pile the same acre and a half of hay, and shall carry it to the manor, and it will be reckoned in his works. And he shall have for each work of mowing, as much of green grass, when he shall have mowed it, as he is able to carry on the point of his scythe. And when he has carried the said hay he shall have, at the end of the same carrying, the body of his cart full of hay. And he shall reap in the autumn for the feast of St Peter ad Vincula (August 1) to the feast of St Michael (September 29) through the whole of the autumn, 24 works, without food from the lord, the price of one work being 1d. And he shall carry the grain of the lord and pile it, and it shall be accounted for in his works. And he shall have as often as he carries, one bundle called the mensheaf; and he shall carry it with his horse twelve leagues around the manor as much as the weight of 2 bushels of salt or of 3 bushels of wheat, of rye, of peas, or of beans; and of oats, 4 bushels. And he ought to go for the said grain and bring it to the granary of the lord, with the aforesaid horse and his own sack. And he shall have as often as his hands as much oats as he is able to measure and carry in the palm of his hand three times. And if he shall not have carried he is not to give anything, but will be appointed in the place of each carrying one work of the price of a half penny, And he shall give aid and must attend the court. And he shall give merchant on the marriage of his daughter, at the will of the lord.
The same Walter holds one toft which contains 2 acres of land. And he shall perform each week, from the feast of the Trinity to the first of August, 2 works, the price of the work being a half penny. And for a half a toft in each week during the same period, 1 work and a half, without the food of the lord, the price of the work being 1d. And he shall have a bundle called the tofsheaf, as large as he is able to bind, in a band cut off and not uprooted nor extracted from the earth along with its roots.
Richard at Mere
holds from the lord in villenage 20 acres of land by paying yearly of Unthield at the feast of the Purification, at 4s 5 and a half pence; at Easter,16d; and at the feast of St Michael,17d; and at Christmas, one hen of the price as above. And he shall work from the feast of St Michael to the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula, in each week, like Walter Johan. And he shall give aid and merchet and make service at court.
The same Richard holds one toft, and he performs from the feast of the Trinity to the first of August in each week 2 works, the price as above; and from the feast of St Michael, each week 1 work, without the food of the lord, the price being 1d.
Robert Ernald
holds from the lord in villenage 20 acres of land by paying and performing all services and customs in all things, just as the said Richard at Mere. And he shall give merchet and aid, and shall make suit at the court. And he holds a toft from the lord and does in each and all things just as the said Richard, and she will give aid and make merchet and attendance at court.
Philip the Reeve
holds from the lord in villenage 10 acres of land, paying yearly at the Purification of the Blessed Mary of Unthield, 2s.2d and three farthings; and at Easter 8d; and at the feast of St Michael 8d; and at Christmas one hen of the price of 1d. And he shall plow, carry manure, weed the grain, mow the meadow, scatter and pile. And he shall do all other services by half as the land of the aforesaid Richard at Mere. And he shall make attendance at the court.
The same Philip holds one toft and performs for it all the services as the former Richard at Mere, also attendance at court.
Dennis Rolf
holds from the lord in villenage 10 acres of land, by paying and doing in rent and all other services like the said Richard at Mere. And for on toft which he holds he will do in all things just as the said Richard, And the same Dennis holds 1 acre of land by paying yearly 12d at the feast of Easter, and of St Michael in equal portions.
Peter at Cross
holds from the lord in villenage, 10 acres of land by paying thence and performing rent and other customs and services as the aforesaid Philip the Reeve. And for one toft which he holds he does in all things as the same Philip, and does suit at the court.. Edmund Nel holds from the lord in the villenage 10 acres of land by paying yearly and performing all services as the aforesaid Philip. The same Edmund holds half a toft and does all things in service of the aforesaid Philip.
Walter of Lynton
holds from the lord in the villenage 10 acres of land by paying and doing all the services and customs of the aforesaid Philip, the Reeve.
The same Walter holds from the lord a half toft, and does in all things as the aforesaid Edmund Nel
Aschelot the Young
holds from the lord, in the villenage, 10 acres of land and half a toft, and he does in all things like the aforesaid Walter of Lynton.
Henry Lambert
holds from the lord 10 acres of land and a half toft, and he does in each and all things as Walter of Lynton. And besides, for a certain street called Rapstreet, 2d yearly.
John Rolf
holds from the lord 10 acres of land and a half toft, and in all services he does the same as the aforesaid Walter. And for a certain Rapstreet, 2d yearly.
Joanna Gill, William Gill and Peter Gill
hold 10 acres and a half toft, and do all in the services just as Walter of Lynton.
Agnes Selone
holds from the lord 10 acres of land and half toft, and in all services and customs does as the said Walter.
Thomas of Reculver, clerk,
holds from the lord certain land called Stanegroundsland, which contains 10 acres of land and a half a toft. And he performs all other services and customs in all services just as the said Walter of Lynton.
William Wareng and Maud Wareng
hold form the lord in villenage 5 acres of land and they pay yearly at the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Mary, of Unthield, 13 and a halfpenny at Easter, 4d; at the feast of St Michael, 4 and quarter pence, and at Christmas, a hen of the price as above. And they do in all services and customs half as much as for the land of Philip the Reeve. The same William and Maud hold one toft and do in all things just as the aforesaid Philip.
The same William holds 5 acres of land for himself; and in all the services and customs does half as much as the aforesaid Philip. And the fourth part of a toft which he holds he does a fourth part as much as others pay for such a tenement.
The same William owes for Warengerstreet, 2d. yearly, at the prescribed periods.
William the Smith
holds from the lord 6 acres of land for shaping the iron of the ploughs of the lord from iron furnished by the lord himself. And he pays of Unthield,12 and threequarter pence.
Denis State
holds from the lord in villenage 5 acres of land and the fourth part of a toft, by paying and doing in each and all things yearly just as the said William Wareng for his 5 acres and a fourth part of one toft.
Nicholas Hervey
holds from the lord in villenage 5 acres and a fourth part of on toft by paying and doing in all things yearly just as the said W.Wareng for as much land.
William Selone
holds from the lord in villenage 5 acres of land and the fourth part of one toft by paying and doing in all things yearly just as the said W.Wareng.
Margery Simonds
holds from the lord 5 acres of land, by doing in all things just as the said William for as much land.
Walter Arnewy
holds from the lord in villenage 5 acres of land by paying for it and doing all services just as the aforesaid Margery.
Mabel at Mere
holds from the lord 5 acres of land, by paying and doing all things just as the aforesaid Margery.
The same Walter, Mabel at Mere and Mabel Nicole hold one toft by paying for it and doing services as Philip the Reeve for his toft.

Cotemen.

Ralf Denis
holds from the lord one toft by paying for it yearly in all things just as Philip the Reeve. And besides this he ought to clear ditches in the winter on the land of the lord at the time of the planting of wheat. And he ought to scatter the manure of the lord as long as there is any to scattered in each season of the year. And if he shall not have cleared out nor scattered manure, he shall have nothing.
Mabel of Alfetone and Gundred, her sister,
hold from the lord one toft and to do in all things as the aforesaid Ralf Denis.
William Nenour
holds from the lord one cottage and performs in each working week one work of the value of a halfpenny on each Monday, viz: from the feast of St Michael to the feast of St Peter ad Vincula, and from the feast St Peter ad Vincula to the feast of St Michael in each week one work of the value of 1d.
Walter Selone
holds from the lord one cottage, and does in all things like Walter (William) Nenour.

It is to be known that if the said W.Neour and Walter Selone have threshed grain in the barn of the lord, they shall have as much straw as they shall be able, both at one time, with one rake to gather together in the space of the said barn.. And in the same way of hay, when they have gathered it together in the meadow of the lord. And from this time as it is said, to which memory goeth not back.

It is to be known that all the above mentioned customary tenants ought to reap one day in autumn at one bedrepe of wheat. And they shall have among them 6 bushels of wheat for their bread, baked in the manor, and soup and meat, that is to say, two men have one portion of beef, and cheese, and beer for drinking. And the aforesaid customary tenants will work in autumn, to the extent of two boonworks of oats. And they shall have 6 bushels of rye for their bread as described above. Soup, as before, and herrings, viz., each two men, six herrings, and cheese as before, and water for rinking.

Total rerit of customary assize of the period of St Michael, s.d.
Yearly,
Total rent for Unthield, of the period of the Purification 557
Total rent for the Easter period172 and a half penny
Total rent of hens of the said customary tenants at Christmas period.211 farthing
Total rent of assize at Easter period, both of free and customary tenants. 254 and a half penny
Total rent of the same, of the period of St Michael, yearly.287 (Likewise 10s at the aforesaid periods).
Total of the customs called Unthield at the Purification of the Blessed Mary , yearly,. 60 halfpenny
Total rents of hens at Christmas. 32 and a half penny
Grand total of the above sums, along with the Unthield, yearly, 117 s3d
Reginald Crummelond's 10s of rent yearly, found after the extent was made.

There are there of the services of customary tenants as is shown above from Michaelmas to the first of August, through 44 weeks, 1485 works, at 3 works a week.

And from the two cottagers through the same period 88 works,--from each of them 1 work a week.

And from sixteen toftmen, from the feast of the Holy Trinity to the first of August, through 10 weeks, 320 works, the value of each work being a half-penny, from which ought to be subtracted those ascribed to 3 weeks, viz: Christmas, Easter, Whitsuntide. And moreover for two cottages and for tributes of ploughing to be allotted to different seasons, 152 works. And there remain 1742 works, the value of a work being half a penny. Total- 4 6s 8d and a half penny.

There are moreover of the issues of the aforesaid customary tenants 22 and a half tributes of which each tribute requires ploughing upon the land of the lord at different seasons. And a tribute at the convenience of the lord at all plantings is worth 10 and a half penny. Total, 19s 8d and a quarter penny.

There are moreover the autumn works of the aforesaid customary tenants from the first of August to the feast of St Michael, 424 works, the price of each work being 2d. Total 41s 2d.

The sum total value , according to the extent, is 43 19s and three farthings.

Likewise from Roger Crummelond 10s yearly, discovered after the extent was made up, as above. From which should be subtracted 7d rent. A meadow called Baselymede, near Radbridge. There remains 43 18s 5d and three quarter penny.

And it is to be known that the Lord Prior of Christ Church of Canterbury has his liberty in the vill of Borley; and he has the jurisdiction over thieves caught on the manor and tenants of the manor taken outside with stolen goods in their hands or on their backs. And the judicial gallows of this franchise stand and ought to stand at Radbrdge. And now let us inquire concerning the pillory and the tumbrel. It is reported by the jury that it ought to stand beyond the outer gates towards the west, next to the pigstye of the lord.

And it is to be remembered that as often as it is necessary for the reeve and four men to be present before the Justices in Eyre or anywhere else, that is to say at the jail-delivery of our lord, the King, or wheresoever it may be, the lord ought to find two men at his expense before the same Justices; and the villagers of Borley will find three men at their expense; and this according to custom from a time to which, as it is said, memory does not extend.

And it is to be known that when any customary tenant of the land in the manor dies, the lord will have as a heriot the best beast of that tenant found at the time of his death. And if he did not have a beast he shall give to the lord for a heriot, 2s 6d. And the heir shall make a fine to the lord for the tenement which was his father's, if it shall seem to be expedient to him, but, if not, he shall have nothing. Nevertheless to the wife of the deceased tenant shall be saved the whole of his tenement which was her husband's on the day he died, to be held of the lord as her free bench till the end of her life, if she shall remain without a husband, and on performing the services due and customary thence to the lord. If, however, through the license of the lord, and shall give one-half of the said tenement to the widow of the deceased a dowry.