The Foxearth and District Local History Society
1878 Norfolk Chronicle newspaper Selections

January 3rd 1878

At the Norfolk Quarter Sessions, the Committee of Visitors of the County Lunatic Asylum at Thorpe made certain recommendations as to the best means of raising the sum of £35,000 for the erection of new buildings and for enlarging the Asylum chapel, as decided upon at a previous sessions. Thirty-five acres of land had been purchased on which to erect the new buildings, which were intended to accommodate 250 additional patients.

January 5th 1878

Died at Unthank’s Road, Norwich, in his 96th year, Mr. Stephen Wilde, for many years Governor of the City Gaol. “He was paymaster-sergeant and last surviving member of Mr. J. Patteson’s Volunteer Corps raised in the year 1798.”

January 7th 1878

Died at Starston Rectory, the Ven. Augustus Macdonald Hopper, Archdeacon of Norwich, and thirty-two years rector of Starston, aged 61. He graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge, as Senior Optime, and first class in the Classical Tripos in 1839. Subsequently he obtained by competition a Fellowship at St. John’s College, and in 1845 was appointed to his living. After holding the offices of Rural Dean and Proctor for the Diocese in Convocation, Mr. Hopper became Archdeacon of Norwich in 1868. He was succeeded as Archdeacon by the Rev. T. T. Perowne.

January 8th 1878

Died at Cassell Road, Small Heath, Birmingham, the residence of her son, Mr. Vivian Crome, artist, grandson of Old Crome, Mary Ann Crome, widow of William Henry Crome, aged 75. “She was an amateur pupil of that worthy master, and for many years, while yet Miss Steel, was governess in several Norfolk county families.”

January 8th 1878

Died at Middle Market Road, Great Yarmouth, Mrs. Gunn, aged 74. “She was a poet of no inconsiderable merit. Many of her poems have reference to local events, but the greater number are quite imaginative. Mrs. Gunn’s writings were printed and published, and found such acceptance that a further edition was necessary.”

January 25th 1878

Severe weather prevailed at Yarmouth. Great damage was done to vessels at sea, and several lives were lost.

January 26th 1878

A special meeting of the Norfolk Agricultural Association was held at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, under the presidency of Lieut.-Colonel FitzRoy, at which it was decided to hold a spring show of cart horses. The first show took place at Norwich, on March 9th.

February 2nd 1878

A telegram from Shanghai announced the death of Mr. Charles Wyncliffe Goodwin, assistant judge at that place. Mr. Goodwin, who was 60 years of age, was a scholar of considerable eminence, and the author of several learned works, including the article on the “Mosaic Cosmogony,” in “Essays and Reviews.” He was a son of Mr. C. Goodwin, solicitor, of King’s Lynn, and elder brother of the Bishop of Carlisle.

February 8th 1878

The Lynn Town Council unanimously resolved to take steps to abolish “the annual collection of rubbish and roguery which passes under the title of the Cheese Fair.” The fair, which for many years had been held in King Street, was abolished by an order issued by the Home Secretary in the month of April.

February 18th 1878

The Amateur Dramatic Club of the 5th Royal Irish Lancers commenced a series of performances at Norwich Theatre, with the production of “Ingomar.” On succeeding evenings, “The Lady of Lyons,” “Black-eyed Susan,” and other pieces were performed. The proceeds were in aid of the new uniform fund of the Norwich Rifle Volunteers, and of the Soldiers’ Monument on Norwich Cemetery.

February 21st 1878

Interesting experiments were made with the telephone in the counting-house of Messrs. J. and J. Colman, Carrow Works, under the direction of Mr. H. Sack, superintendent of the Great Eastern Railway telegraph department. Telephones were attached to Messrs. Colman’s private wire to London, _viâ_ Ipswich, and to the railway company’s wire _viâ_ Cambridge to Liverpool Street Station, a distance of about 120 miles. “Parties of ladies and gentlemen at both ends were able to converse freely with each other, the words being clearly understood and distinctly heard. This was considered to be a very successful experiment, although it does not appear that at present the telephone can be adapted to public use.”

February 22nd 1878

Died at Heckingham, in her 100th year, Kezia, widow of Richard Haywood.

March 7th 1878

Sir Wilfrid Lawson, M.P., addressed a meeting held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, in furtherance of the Permissive Bill.

March 9th 1878

“The rules approved by the Secretary of State for the regulation of prisons in England and Wales under the Act of Parliament (the Prisons Act) passed last year have been issued. From these it appears that upon an order being directed for the discontinuance of Norwich Gaol and Wymondham Bridewell, the prisoners therein will be transferred to the County Gaol, Norwich Castle.” The prisoners were transferred from the Gaol to the Castle in the early part of May.

March 11th 1878

Mr. H. M. Pitt’s Comedy-Drama Company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre. The company re-appeared at the Theatre on November 25th, for a season of eighteen nights—its farewell visit.

March 15th 1878

Died at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, from cancer on the tongue, Mr. John Joseph Cotman, aged 63. “As an artist he would have rivalled his father, John Sell Cotman, but unhappily his unquestionably great genius was marred by an eccentricity which at times verged on insanity, and ruined a career which should have been one of honour and renown to himself and of profit to his family.”

March 15th 1878

Died at Lewes, Sussex, Mr. George P. Bacon, in his 71st year. He was the second son of Mr. Richard Mackenzie Bacon, proprietor and editor of the “Norwich Mercury.” In 1843 he became proprietor of the “Sussex Advertiser,” which he conducted in a very spirited manner. Mr. Bacon joined his brother in forming the “Norwich Mercury” Company. He was also well-known as secretary to the Association for the Repeal of the Hop Duty.

March 16th 1878

A silver inkstand and a purse of 200 gs. were presented to Mr. H. J. Martin, in recognition of his services as honorary secretary of the Norwich Central Conservative Club.

March 17th 1878

Died at the Cathedral Close, Norwich, Mr. Henry Hansell, proctor, solicitor and notary public, and registrar of the Archdeaconry of Norfolk, aged 71. Mr. Hansell was a warm supporter of the local charities, and was for several years honorary secretary of the Jenny Lind Infirmary. His knowledge of ecclesiastical law and of the rules and practices of the courts was most profound. He was succeeded in his registrarship and other appointments by his son, Mr. Thomas William Hansell.

March 25th 1878

The celebrated Vokes Family commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre, in “Belles of the Kitchen,” “The Wrong Man in the Right Place,” &c.

March 28th 1878

The 5th Royal Irish Lancers gave a mounted and dismounted assault-at-arms at the Circus building, Castle Meadow, Norwich, in aid of the local charities and other objects. The performance was repeated on the 30th. The regiment received from the Town Council the thanks of the city for its valuable services.

April 13th 1878

“The death is announced of Mr. Thomas Hoseason, of Lynn, at the age of 68. It is said that he was the last representative of one of the famous Dutch families who came over to England with William III., and took a foremost part in the settlement and cultivation of the country of Marshland, so much resembling their native land. The Hoseasons were for many years large landed proprietors, but their estates have changed hands, and the deceased had gradually fallen into a state of utter destitution, and for a long time past had been dependent upon the aid of friends, and lived in a secluded lodging in a back street in the town.”

April 17th 1878

A public meeting was held at Yarmouth, in opposition to the proposal of the Corporation to erect a new town hall, with courts and public offices, at the cost of £24,000. A resolution condemning the scheme, and asserting that the outlay would be £36,000, and would involve an addition to the rates of 3d. in the pound for the next fifty years, was adopted. The Town Council, on July 15th, approved the plans of Mr. J. B. Pearce, architect, Norwich. (_See_ May 31st, 1882.)

April 22nd 1878

Died at the Wilderness, Bracondale, the Rev. Joseph Crompton, rector of St. Lawrence’, Norwich, in his 65th year. Mr. Crompton began his career in Norwich as a Nonconformist minister, in about 1848. For many years he was minister at the Octagon chapel; but his views underwent such a change that he relinquished the pastorate and established what was known as the Free Christian Church, which assembled at the Dutch church, Elm Hill. After a ministry of several years, Mr. Crompton, whose views had approximated to those of the Broad Church party, began to show strong sympathy with that section of the Establishment. He avowed himself “a Dissenter against his will,” and stated that the Athanasian Creed was the last stumbling-block in his way to joining the Church of England. At his own request the Bishop shortly afterwards admitted him to Holy Orders, and he officiated as curate to the Rev. Charles Morse, both at St. Mary’s and St. Michael-at-Plea. On the Rev. E. A. Hillyard leaving St. Lawrence’, Mr. Crompton was appointed rector of the parish. He took great interest in scientific pursuits, and his name was associated with the Norfolk and Norwich Museum as a lecturer with Professors Lindley and Sedgwick, Thomas Brightwell, and the Rev. R. Lubbock. Mr. Crompton was a zealous supporter of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists’ Society, of which he was President in the first two years of its existence. In politics he was a decided Liberal. A window erected to his memory by public subscription was unveiled at St. Lawrence’ church by Mr. Harry Bullard, Mayor of Norwich, on November 6th, 1879.

April 22nd 1878

The farcical comedy, “Pink Dominoes,” was produced at Norwich Theatre by a company under the management of Mr. S. Genese. “It is a class of piece which we are sorry to see introduced on the English stage. Originating in France, it had better be kept in an atmosphere for which it may be specially adapted.”

April 26th 1878

Mr. Frank Buckland and Mr. Spencer Walpole, fishery commissioners, held a public inquiry at Lynn into the use of trawl and seine nets, and into the alleged destruction of the fry and spawn of sea fish. A similar inquiry was held at Yarmouth.

May 9th 1878

At a meeting held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, a branch of the Church of England Temperance Society was established. The Lord Bishop presided, and addresses were delivered by the Rev. Canon Ellison, the Rev. Canon Wilberforce, Mr. Cadge, and Dr. Eade.

May 12th 1878

A fire occurred on premises on the South Denes Road and Exmouth Road, Yarmouth, by which damage was done to the amount of £3,000.

May 15th 1878

Died at Norwich, Mr. Edward Press, in his 77th year. He was a son of the Rev. Edward Press, B.A., and was born at Barnham Broom. For many years he practised as a solicitor at Hingham, and held several local appointments of a public character. He was, however, more widely known as County Coroner, the duties of which office he discharged with marked ability for fifty years. In politics Mr. Press was a Liberal. He was succeeded as County Coroner by Mr. Robert Thomas Culley, who was elected unopposed on June 6th.

May 23rd 1878

The 5th Royal Irish Lancers’ Christy Minstrel Troupe gave performances at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, in aid of the local charities.

June 1st 1878

Died at his residence, Theatre Square, Norwich, Mr. Frank Noverre, aged 71. Mr. Noverre was descended from a French family long associated with Norwich. His father was one of the original directors of the Norwich Union Life Insurance Society, and he was himself for many years a director of the same institution. At one time he was honorary treasurer of the Norwich Choral Society, honorary secretary of the Norwich Philharmonic Society, and a member of the sub-committee of management of the Norfolk and Norwich Musical Festival.

June 10th 1878

The celebration of the coming of age of Lord Hastings, on April 4th, commenced on this date, at Melton Constable. The festivities lasted five days.

June 19th 1878

The Summer Show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association was opened at North Walsham, and was continued on the 20th. Lord Suffield presided at the luncheon.

June 19th 1878

At a meeting of the Governors of the Norwich Dispensary, it was agreed, on the motion of Mr. John Gurney, to adopt the provident system in the working of the institution.

June 24th 1878

Colonel Massy and the officers of the 5th Royal Irish Lancers, on the occasion of the departure of the first detachment of the regiment from Norwich, were entertained at a civic luncheon, given at the Guildhall, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. J. D. Smith). The Mayor, on behalf of the citizens, presented to the officers a massive silver-gilt cup, “in appreciation of the exemplary conduct of the regiment during its stay among them, and in grateful remembrance of the many benefits conferred by it upon the city and its institutions.” The remainder of the regiment marched on the 25th. The Town Council, on July 1st, passed a special resolution, recording its high estimation of the regiment, and ordering the entry in the minutes of the fact that “no complaint has been made nor any collision taken place between the military and the citizens during the time the regiment has been quartered in the city.” The Lancers were relieved by the 21st Hussars, commanded by Colonel Wake.

June 29th 1878

Died at Constantinople, aged 32, Mr. Robert Pulvertoft Master, Commissioner of the Turkish Compassionate Fund. He was the second son of Mr. Alfred Master, of Norwich, and rendered great services in the cause of humanity during the Russo-Turkish War. Mr. Master was educated at Norwich Grammar School, and, after spending a year in Germany, and a like period in a commercial house in London, proceeded to Ceylon, where he became manager of a coffee estate, and married Amelia, second daughter of Sir Edward Creasy, Chief Justice of the island.

July 4th 1878

Died at Pottergate Street, Norwich, Mr. William Smith, veterinary surgeon, aged 61. Mr. Smith attained to considerable eminence in his profession. During the time of the Cattle Plague, he did good service to the county in his official capacity as inspector to the Central Committee, and at the meeting of the British Association at Norwich read an able paper on the disease, its origin and treatment.

July 9th 1878

Winterton church was re-opened by the Bishop of Norwich. It had been restored at the cost of £3,000.

July 13th 1878

The 3rd and 4th Battalions of Norfolk Rifle Volunteers went into camp at Yarmouth, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Duff, M.P., and Lieut.-Colonel Gurdon.

July 15th 1878

The Hemsby to Martham extension of the Yarmouth and Stalham Railway was opened on this date. Powers having been obtained for carrying the line to North Walsham, it was thereafter known as the North Norfolk Railway. (_See_ June 8th, 1881.)

July 20th 1878

Died at Norwich, in his 93rd year, Commander Crane, R.N. He was the son of Mr. Edward Crane, Coroner of Norwich, and entered the Royal Navy as midshipman on board the Repulse, in 1798. During the summer of 1805 he accompanied Nelson in his pursuit to the West Indies of the combined French and Spanish fleets. After continuous service he joined the Reynard, 18 guns, as Acting Commander in the advance on Riga, and was the first to bring to the Admiral of the station lying off Carlscrona news of the great defeat of Napoleon at Moscow. He was in May, 1813, while in charge of a prize, driven by a gale into Frederickstadt, in Norway, where he was detained a prisoner for some months. In 1843 he received the rank of commander, and since 1848 had resided in Norwich.

August 3rd 1878

At the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Justice Thesiger, Mr. W. G. Loftus, of Bracon Lodge, brought an action against the Rev. T. T. Berney, rector of Braconash, for trespass. The defendant claimed the right, as lord of the manor, of shooting over thirty-four acres’ of land around Bracon Lodge. This land was principally garden ground. The plaintiff objected to defendant sporting in his kitchen garden, and wished to put an end to the nuisance. In the course of argument between Mr. Day, Q.C., for the plaintiff, and Sir Patrick Colquhoun, Q.C., for the defendant, reference was made to several “musty deeds” produced by Mr. Berney. The jury found for the plaintiff, damages 40s.

August 5th 1878

A singular claim to the Stanfield Hall estate was made at the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Justice Thesiger. The action was brought by George Taylor, a railway guard, against Mr. Reginald Gwyn and the Rev. Henry H. H. Lubbock, the owners of the estate, who pleaded that they had a possessory title, and that plaintiff’s title and right of action were barred by the Statute of Limitations. The estate was originally in the possession of William Jermy, of Bayfield, who died in 1752, and plaintiff alleged that, as a lineal descendant of Robert Jermy, who died in 1758, he was heir-at-law. Mr. Bulwer, Q.C., after opening the case for the plaintiff, said he was not justified in occupying the time of the court and putting the parties to further trouble in the matter, when he knew perfectly well that he must be beaten in the end. The jury returned a verdict for the defendants, for whom his lordship gave judgment.

August 18th 1878

Died at Whitwell Hall, Mr. Robert Leamon, aged 56. Mr. Leamon, who was described as “a good specimen of the old Norfolk yeoman,” broke down the Whig monopoly in East Norfolk, “and became the political godfather of Mr. C. S. Read, for whom he entertained the warmest personal regard.” Mr. Leamon was born in 1822, and inherited from his father a fine property and extensive business. He married, in 1848, a daughter of Mr. John Brooke Gill, of Wood Norton.

August 22nd 1878

Died at Runton, aged 76, Favell Lee, widow of the Rev. Thomas Mortimer. She was the authoress of “The Peep of Day,” and other works of a similar character.

August 24th 1878

A fire took place at Messrs. Bagshaw’s paper mills, St. Miles’, Norwich, and did damage amounting to several thousands of pounds.

August 30th 1878

Among the most notable of architectural improvements in Norwich was the new building known as Cooper’s Restaurant, which was opened on this date. It was designed by Mr. Edward Boardman, architect, and occupies a site on which stood the old business premises of Messrs. Butcher, cheese factors.

September 5th 1878

Mr. and Mrs. German Reed, assisted by Miss Fanny Holland, Mr. Dale, Mr. Corney Grain, and Mr. Arthur Law, commenced a three nights’ engagement at St. Giles’ Hall, Norwich.

September 9th 1878

Mr. Henry Walsham opened an operatic season at Norwich Theatre. The company included Madame Rose Hersée, Miss Palmer, Madame Telma, and Mr. Ludwig.

September 11th 1878

The Sheriff of Norwich (Mr. Harry Bullard) provided the first of his annual excursions for the _employés_ at the Anchor Brewery. The workpeople in the service of the firm (with their wives), to the number of 600, were conveyed to the Crystal Palace and back by special train.

October 2nd 1878

A four-oared race, between a crew of the 21st Hussars (Capt. Lovewell, stroke) and of the Norwich Police, took place between Field’s boat-house, Thorpe, and Trowse railway-bridge—distance, a mile and a quarter. After a very close race, the police crew won.

October 10th 1878

Died, the Rev. Henry Lombe, of Bylaugh Park, aged 86. He was fifty years a parochial clergyman, and for twenty-six years rector of Lyng. At Swanton Morley, in 1831, when the poor-rates were at an appalling figure, and poverty excessive, he set on foot and carried on for years on his own responsibility an extensive cotton weaving business, reduced a turbulent population to order, and saved the whole parish from starvation. In the days of incendiarism he was the main instrument in hunting down into their hiding-places the leaders of that infamous movement, and the means of bringing the notorious Nockolds to justice (_q.v._ Vol. I., p. 304). Before the days of the rural police, he organized a voluntary system of constabulary in his desperately disturbed parish of Lyng. In company with the farmers, he patrolled the parish during the whole winter, visited every farmstead, and preserved the village from utter ruin. Clubs, coal charities, and penny banks were under his personal superintendence to the last day of his active life. Mr. Lombe was succeeded in the possession of his extensive landed estates by his son, Mr. Henry Evans Lombe, of Melton Hall, a B.A. of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and a magistrate for Norfolk and Suffolk.

October 14th 1878

Died at his residence, St. Giles’, Norwich, Mr. George Warren Watts Firth, F.R.C.S., aged 64. He was senior surgeon to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, a magistrate of the city, and honorary consulting surgeon to the Norfolk County Lunatic Asylum, a distinction conferred upon him after his retirement from the office of surgeon to that institution.

October 15th 1878

The Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival commenced at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, with an evening performance of “Acis and Galatea,” and of “Spring” (from “The Seasons”). The morning performances were as follow:—16th, “Joseph,” and 1st Mass in C (Mozart); 17th, “Elijah”; 18th, “The Messiah.” On the evening of the 16th a grand ballad concert was given, and on the evening of the 17th an operatic concert. The vocalists were Madame Albani, Miss Catherine Penna, Miss Anna Williams, Madame A. Sterling, Madame Trebelli, Mr. Edward Lloyd, Mr. H. J. Minns, Mr. W. Shakespeare, Mr. R. Hilton, and Mr. Santley. Sir Julius Benedict conducted. The total receipts amounted to £4,140 4s. 9d., and the expenditure to £3,898 2s. 6d.

October 17th 1878

The Rev. Sidney Pelham, curate-in-charge of Aylsham, was elected vicar of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, in place of the Rev. Charles Turner, who had accepted the living of Bixley with Framingham Earl, after 31 years’ ministry at St. Peter’s.

October 17th 1878

The monument erected at Norwich Cemetery “to the memory of deceased soldiers of regiments stationed in this city or who may die while on service here,” was unveiled by Lord Waveney. It was designed by Mr. John Bell, a Norfolk man. The figure forming the finial, called by the designer “The Spirit of the Army,” was cast in terra cotta by Messrs. Doulton, of the Lambeth Pottery. Colonel Wake, of the 21st Hussars, in the name of the British Army and on behalf of his brother officers, thanked the representatives of the county of Norfolk and city of Norwich for erecting the memorial.

October 20th 1878

Died at Norwich, James Truman, aged 70, for upwards of fifty years a member of the St. Peter Mancroft Company of Ringers. In 1831 he rang with the St. Peter’s company an intricate peal of Double Norwich Court Bob Major, at St. Michael at Coslany tower, and in 1844 conducted a long peal of Stedman’s Cinques on the twelve bells of St. Peter’s. The peal consisted of 7,126 changes, and occupied 5 hours 17 minutes in ringing. At that time it was the longest peal that had been accomplished in the method.

October 28th 1878

Mr. J. B. Gough, the American temperance advocate, gave an “oration” at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, at a meeting presided over by Canon Lee Warner.

October 28th 1878

Died at Norwich, aged 27, Mr. W. Wilson Turnbull, a member of the literary staff of the “Eastern Daily Press.” He was the author of Messrs. Weldon’s annual, “Benjamin D---,” illustrated by a Norwich amateur, and of several able pamphlets on the Permissive Bill. At the time of his death, Mr. Turnbull was engaged in the preparation of another annual for Messrs. Weldon.

October 29th 1878

A meeting of the clergy and lay representatives of the diocese was held at Noverre’s Rooms, Norwich, “for the purpose of deciding upon the question of the institution of a diocesan conference or synod.” The Lord Bishop presided. The Very Rev. Dean Goulburn moved, “That this meeting do advise the Lord Bishop that, in their judgment, it is inexpedient to constitute a diocesan conference to meet periodically.” Lord Walsingham seconded the motion. Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., moved a direct negative—“That it is desirable that a conference of the clergy and laity be established in this diocese.” The Ven. Archdeacon Groome seconded. After a long discussion, Mr. Read’s proposition was adopted by the votes of 140 laity and 115 clergy, against the votes of 15 laity and 6 clergy.

November 5th 1878

The marriage of Viscount Anson, eldest son of the Earl of Lichfield, and Lady Mildred Coke, youngest daughter of the Earl of Leicester, was solemnised at Holkham church.

November 6th 1878

The first general meeting of the shareholders of the Norwich Café Company was held at the Guildhall, under the presidency of Mr. John Gurney. The company was incorporated in July, with a nominal capital of £20,000, in 20,000 shares of £1 each. About 8,000 shares had been subscribed for at this date, by about 90 shareholders.

November 7th 1878

The extension of the franchise to female householders was advocated at a public meeting held at St. Giles’ Hall, Norwich, presided over by the Mayor (Mr. J. D. Smith), and addresses were delivered by Miss Helen Taylor and Miss P. H. Downing.

November 9th 1878

Mr. Harry Bullard, on the expiration of his term of office as Sheriff of Norwich, was elected Mayor. For the office of Sheriff there were two nominees, Mr. William Howlett and Mr. Donald Steward. After a long and acrimonious discussion, Mr. Steward was appointed.

November 16th 1878

At a meeting of the Board of Management of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, Mr. Samuel Herbert Burton was elected house-surgeon, Mr. Charles Williams surgeon, and Mr. H. S. Robinson assistant surgeon.

November 16th 1878

The memorable and disastrous flood occurred at Norwich. A heavy fall of snow on the 12th, followed by a rapid thaw and continuous rain, had the effect of greatly swelling the tributaries of the Yare and Wensum. Simultaneously, a north-west wind occasioned a high tide at Yarmouth, so that the river waters were denied their natural outlet. Instead of ebbing with the tide, the Yare rose steadily on the 15th, and many thousand acres of marshes lying between Norwich and Yarmouth were inundated on the following day. The New Mills at Norwich, were, however, responsible for the greater part of the damage from which the city suffered. The obstruction caused the waters to overflow the banks of the river, and, in a short time, many of the streets in the low-lying localities were flooded, and hundreds of the inhabitants were compelled to leave their houses by means of boats. An enormous amount of distress prevailed. The Mayor (Mr. Harry Bullard) convened a meeting at the Guildhall on the 17th (Sunday), at which it was decided to establish centres for the distribution of provisions; and permission was obtained from the Government authorities to make use of the governor’s house at the disused City Gaol for the accommodation of the houseless people, of whom 200 found refuge there. The Sessions Court at the Guildhall was opened during the day as a store-house, in which 2,600 loaves of bread and many hundreds of blankets, received from the County Gaol, Asylum, Workhouse, and Cavalry Barracks, were placed ready for distribution. At 6.30 on the same evening another influential meeting was held at the Guildhall, when the Mayor and the Sheriff (Mr. Donald Steward) were publicly thanked for the active part they had taken in mitigating the distress of the people. On the 18th a third meeting took place, at which a relief fund was inaugurated, when, in a few minutes, £2,271 13s. 6d. was subscribed, an amount which, by the end of the week, was increased to £4,200. Three or four persons lost their lives in the flood. In various parts of the county rivers overflowed their banks, and much damage was done to property. (_See_ January 4th, 1879.)

November 18th 1878

An art loan exhibition, largely contributed to by noblemen and others in the Eastern Counties, was opened at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, by the Mayor (Mr. Harry Bullard) in aid of a fund for the restoration of the church of St. Peter Mancroft. An inaugural ode, specially written by Mr. E Oxenford, and composed by Dr. Bunnett, was performed by members of the Norfolk and Norwich Musical Union. The exhibition remained open until December 14th, when a balance of £820 3s. 6d. was handed over to the credit of the fund. (_See_ October 4th, 1881.)

November 19th 1878

At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, the Provincial Tramways Company applied for permission to construct tramways in the city. The proposed route was to commence at the Cemetery and to proceed by Dereham Road, St. Giles’ Road, Chapel Field Road, Queen’s Road, Upper Surrey Street, All Saints’ Green, Golden Ball Street, Castle Meadow, Prince of Wales Road, Foundry Bridge, and Thorpe Road to Whitlingham Railway Station. An adjourned meeting was held on December 17th, at which it was agreed not to oppose the Bill, provided the Tramways Company consented to the insertion of such clauses, conditions, and restrictions as, in the opinion of the Parliamentary and Bylaws Committee might be deemed necessary. The Norwich Tramways Bill was considered by a Select Committee of the House of Commons, on May 6th, 1879. It was opposed by the Great Eastern Railway Company and Mr. Foster, a local resident, and thrown out after only the promoters’ case had been heard. (_See_ January 16th, 1883.)

November 21st 1878

The Norfolk and Norwich Fat Cattle Show was opened at Chapel Field, Norwich.

December 12th 1878

The old parish church of St. Bartholomew, Heigham, Norwich, which had undergone complete restoration and enlargement, by the addition of a north aisle, at the cost of £2,500, was opened by the Lord Bishop of Norwich.

December 17th 1878

A special meeting of the Norwich Town Council adopted a vote of sympathy with the Queen and other members of the Royal Family, on the death of the Grand Duchess of Hesse (Princess Alice of England), and a muffled peal was rung upon the bells of St. Peter Mancroft. Similar votes were adopted by the Corporations of Yarmouth and Lynn; and the county magistrates voted an address to her Majesty on January 4th, 1879.

December 19th 1878

Mr. E. C. Bailey resigned the office of Clerk to the Norwich Board of Guardians, after a service of thirty-four years. He was succeeded in the appointment by Mr. John Cross.

December 22nd 1878

Died at his residence, Surrey Street, Norwich, Mr. William Peter Nichols, F.R.C.S., aged 77. Mr. Nichols was born at Yelverton, and was educated at King Edward VI. School, Norwich, under Valpy. He was subsequently articled to Mr. Dalrymple, and, having studied at St. Thomas’ and Guy’s Hospitals, under Sir Astley Cooper, passed his examinations, and in 1823 established himself in Norwich, where he speedily made a reputation, although it was not until late in life that he reaped the full honours he deserved. On the death of Mr. J. G. Crosse, Mr. Nichols was elected surgeon of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, a position he held for twenty-two years, and relinquished the post in 1872, when probably the highest possible testimony was paid to his skill as an operator by Dr. Copeman, who mentioned that in lithotomy his average of successful cases was higher than that of Dr. Donne, Dr. Martineau, or Mr. Norgate, all giants in their day. On his retirement from office he was unanimously appointed honorary consulting surgeon. Mr. Nichols was also consulting surgeon to the Bethel Hospital, and, with Mr. J. F. Watson, successfully carried on for many years the private asylum at Heigham Hall. He was elected Mayor of Norwich in 1865, and had the honour to take the lead in the reception of the Prince and Princess of Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the Queen of Denmark, when they visited the city in 1866. In politics he was a Liberal, and occupied at various times a seat in the Town Council. He was also a magistrate of the city.

December 23rd 1878

Died at his town residence, 36, Upper Brooke Street, Lieut.-Colonel James Duff, M.P. He was born at Innis House, Elgin, on July 29th, 1831, and was the son of General Sir James Duff, who married Miss Eliza Charlotte Prescott, eldest daughter of General Sir Beeston Prescott, Bart., of Theobald’s Park, Herts. Educated at Rugby, he entered the Army in 1851, as ensign in the 23rd Fusiliers, with which regiment he afterwards went to the Crimea, and obtained his captaincy in 1854. At the battle of Inkerman he was taken prisoner, and on his release acted as _aide-de-camp_ to General Syssons, who commanded the Second Brigade Light Division until the end of the war. Captain Duff then embarked with his regiment for China, but the Indian Mutiny breaking out meanwhile, they were ordered to Calcutta, to assist in its suppression. Captain Duff was present with Lord Clyde at the capture of Lucknow, and was specially mentioned in dispatches for his services. He received the Crimean medal with two clasps, the Turkish medal, the 5th class of the Medjidie, &c. In 1858 he left the service, and the following year married Mary, only daughter of Mr. Edward Dawkins, of Upper Brooke Street, London, and niece of Mr. John Berney Petre, of Westwick House. On taking up his residence in the county, he was appointed to the command of the 3rd Administrative Battalion of Norfolk Rifle Volunteers, and, on the death of the Hon. Frederick Walpole, was returned as Conservative member for North Norfolk. In conjunction with Sir Robert Buxton, Mr. Clare Sewell Read, Mr. Colman, and Sir Edmund Lacon, he was unwearied in his exertions to secure the passing of the Norfolk and Suffolk Fisheries Preservation Act, and the modification of Mr. Mundella’s Fisheries Bill to the advantage of the district which he represented.

December 26th 1878

The Christmas amusements at Norwich included Messrs. Edwards and Waldegrave’s pantomime of “The Children in the Wood, or Harlequin Good Humour, the Wicked Uncle, and the Good Fairy Birds of the Forest,” at the Theatre; and Bostock and Wombwell’s Menagerie on the Castle Meadow.