The Foxearth and District Local History Society
1865 Norfolk Chronicle newspaper Selections

January 2nd 1865

The Prince and Princess of Wales arrived at Holkham Park, on a visit to the Earl and Countess of Leicester. On the 3rd, 4th, and 5th his Royal Highness shot over the estate, and on the latter date 2,000 head of game was killed. On the night of the 5th a distinguished company were invited to a ball, given by the Earl and Countess; and on the morning of the 6th the Prince and his noble host engaged in wildfowl shooting. Their Royal Highnesses returned to Sandringham the same afternoon.

January 7th 1865

“Amongst the recent improvements in Norwich there are none to bear comparison with the magnificent bank of Messrs. Harveys and Hudson, which is now approaching completion by Messrs. Lucas, nor will there be one which has been erected at so small a comparative cost. The contract for the new bank, of which Mr. P. Hardwicke is the architect, does not exceed £13,000.” The bank was opened for business on January 1st, 1866.

January 13th 1865

The Prince of Wales visited Lord Walsingham, at Merton Hall, and attended a meet of the West Norfolk Hunt. On the 14th, after a day’s cover shooting, has Royal Highness returned to Sandringham, accompanied by the Hon. T. de Grey.

January 31st 1865

The agitation against the Malt Tax was re-opened this year at Lynn, when a great meeting, convened by the West Norfolk Anti-Malt Tax Association, was held at the Town Hall, under the presidency of the High Sheriff (Mr. H. Lee Warner). On February 4th, at a preliminary meeting held at the Swan Hotel, Norwich, presided over by Mr. Clare Sewell Read, the farmers of East Norfolk formed a similar association, and at a public meeting which took place on February 18th, Sir Henry Stracey was elected president, Mr. Robert Gillett treasurer, and Mr. G. H. Murrell secretary. Many petitions were signed in the district in favour of the repeal of the tax.

February 3rd 1865

A meeting of the inhabitants was held at the Corn Hall, Yarmouth, “to take into consideration the provisions of the Haven and Port Bill, and to determine whether the scheme should be supported or opposed in Parliament.” This Bill was intended to supersede the functions of the Haven Commissioners and to protect the shipowners and fishermen, but great opposition was raised against it by the class in whose interests it was avowedly framed. The Norwich Town Council, at a meeting on March 21st, decided to oppose the measure. A Committee of the House of Commons, by whom the Bill was considered, on March 30th unanimously resolved that, “in the absence of unanimity of feeling among the parties affected, including the town of Yarmouth itself, it is not expedient to pass the preamble of the Bill.” It was, therefore, thrown out. (_See_ April 30th, 1866.)

March 6th 1865

The respective merits of the new iron ploughs introduced by Messrs. Ransomes and Sims, of Ipswich, and of the common Norfolk plough, were tested on Messrs. Salter’s farm at Attleborough. “In their lightness and symmetry the former presented a strong contrast. The Norfolk plough drew nearly half as heavy again as the iron ploughs, or in the proportion of 3 to 2 in the shallow work, and in the deep work one quarter heavier, or in the proportion of 4 to 5.”

March 10th 1865

A remarkable incident occurred at Lakenham church. A wedding had been arranged, and the Rev. C. Baldwin, of St. Stephen’s, Norwich, had promised, with the approbation of the vicar, the Rev. A. Pownall, to officiate. When the wedding party arrived at Lakenham, they found the church closed. An entrance was effected, but the vestry was locked, and neither surplice nor books were provided for the clergyman. “It was suggested that a sheet should be borrowed, and the Rev. Mr. Baldwin, habited in this novel vestment, proceeded to unite the parties in the bonds of matrimony, and after having sent to the clergyman’s house for the parish registers, the happy couple were at length enabled to proceed on their wedding trip. Mr. Pownall, who was himself the cause of the whole difficulty, having forgotten to inform the clerk of the forthcoming ceremony, issued the following extraordinary handbill:—‘Lakenham church. A solemn service will be held on Friday, the 24th inst., to avert the wrath of Almighty God and to deprecate His righteous judgments in consequence of the profanation of His sanctuary on Monday last . . . Ezekiel v., 11.’” The incident gave rise to much comment.

March 15th 1865

A great fire occurred at Frazer’s sawmills, near St. Martin-at-Palace church, Norwich, and resulted in the loss of about £4,000 worth of property.

March 18th 1865

Died at North Walsham, Mary Doughty, aged 101 years.

March 28th 1865

At the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Chief Justice Cockburn, was tried a remarkable action for assault, false imprisonment, and malicious prosecution. The plaintiff, Mr. Albert Pell (son of Sir Albert Pell, of Northamptonshire), with his brother, while on a visit to Yarmouth, crossed the fields of the defendant, Mr. Mayes Wigg, at Caister. They had with them a Skye terrier, and defendant, alleging that they were poaching, gave them into the custody of a policeman, who, after detaining them at his cottage, took them before a magistrate at Thrigby. The charge was dismissed, whereupon the present action was commenced. The jury found for the plaintiff on the first count, charging assault and false imprisonment, and awarded damages £5; and for defendant on the second count, charging malicious prosecution.

April 4th 1865

Died at Yarmouth, Mr. George Danby Palmer, aged 77. In early life Mr. Palmer was an active supporter of the Tory party, but previous to the passing of the Reform Bill he adopted Liberal principles, and after the introduction of the Municipal Reform Act became decidedly Radical. He was the oldest member of the borough Bench, and a justice of the peace for the county. “Possessed of large property, he lavished his wealth with unsparing hand upon those whom he deemed worthy of his assistance, but as it was rendered so unobtrusively, with the exception of the recipients of his bounty, the world was not aware of his generosity. He was a straightforward Englishman, and was greatly lamented by all classes in Yarmouth.”

April 17th 1865

The English Grand Opera Company, under the management of Mr. G. B. Loveday, commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre. Madame Haigh-Dyer, Miss Annie Kemp, Miss Ada Taylor, Mr. Brookhouse Bowler, Mr. Grantham, Mr. E. Connell, Mr. Oliver Summers, and Mr. Henry Rowland were the principal _artistes_, and the works produced included “Faust,” “Dinorah,” “The Crown Diamonds,” “Lucrezia Borgia,” “The Lady of Lyons” (burlesque), “Satanella,” and “Norma.”

May 17th 1865

The Snettisham Hall estate of 2,600 acres and a rental of £3,600 was offered for sale at Garraway’s. The highest bid was £99,000, and the reserve was declared at £130,000.

May 20th 1865

In the Court of Queen’s Bench, the action, le Strange _v._ Rowe, which raised an important question as to sea-shore rights, came on for hearing. The defendant was proceeded against for taking shingle, sand, and shell-fish from the sea shore in the manor of Snettisham, belonging to the plaintiff. About twenty special pleas were set up by the defendant and demurred to in point of law, on the broad ground that there could not be in law any such rights as alleged, “either in all the subjects of the realm or by Royal grant or by custom or by prescription in inhabitants or occupiers.” The Court deferred judgment, and ultimately referred the case to the Norfolk Assizes for decision as to questions of fact. At Norwich, on August 4th, the case was adjourned to enable the plaintiff to amend the declarations. The case came before Lord Chief Justice Erle at the Norfolk Assizes on August 13th, 1866, when the jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff, damages one shilling. In the Court of Queen’s Bench, on May 28th, 1867, application was made for a new trial, on the ground of misdirection and that the verdict was given for the plaintiff against the weight of evidence. The application was refused.

May 23rd 1865

An earthquake shock was distinctly felt along the coast from Scratby, on the north of Yarmouth, to Lowestoft, on the south.

May 24th 1865

The Queen’s birthday was observed as a general holiday at Norwich. A detachment of the 16th Lancers and the Volunteers were reviewed in Chapel Field, and fired a _feu de joie_ in the Market Place; the Mayor gave a luncheon at the Guildhall, and the Volunteers were entertained at the Corn Hall. The Mayor’s ball took place in the evening, at St. Andrew’s Hall.

May 27th 1865

Considerable opposition was manifested, not only by the villagers, but by the citizens of Norwich, to an attempt made by Capt. Bellairs to enclose Mulbarton Common. A meeting was held in the village, at which a strong protest was made against the proposal, and it was asserted that if ever the ancestors of Capt. Bellairs had possessed the power to effect the enclosure, they had allowed their rights to lapse.

June 2nd 1865

The detachment of the 16th Lancers, _en route_ to India, marched from the Cavalry Barracks, Norwich, accompanied to the city boundary by the officers and band of the Norfolk Light Horse Volunteers.

June 7th 1865

Mr. A. Dennison, brother of the Speaker of the House of Commons, visited Norwich, for the purpose of hearing the bells of St. Peter Mancroft. “He rang the tenor in good style, and was highly delighted with the quality of tone of this far-famed peal of twelve.”

June 9th 1865

In the Court of the Queen’s Bench, application was made in the action, the Queen _v._ the Middle Level Commissioners, for a rule calling upon them to show cause why a mandamus should not issue commanding them to make and maintain a bridge with a commodious road or hailing path in the place formerly occupied by their sluice which was destroyed in the great inundation in 1862. A rule was granted. (_See_ January 7th, 1867.)

June 13th 1865

At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, a report was received from Mr. Bazalgette, C.E., who had visited Norwich with the view of determining what steps could be taken for the immediate purification of the river Wensum in the vicinity of the city. He stated that it would be impossible to render the river pure so long as it continued to be a receptacle for the town refuse; and he had examined the city and suburbs to ascertain how to improve the drainage and to dispose of the sewage. The time would come, he added, when a drainage scheme would be urgently necessary, and very costly. The Council authorised the Sanitary and River Committees to expend a sum not exceeding £50 in obtaining levels and plans and other information required by Mr. Bazalgette, “to assist him in the preparation of his scheme for diverting the drainage from the river.” On October 17th Mr. Bazalgette’s scheme was laid before the Council. It provided for two intercepting sewers, one for the higher and the other for the lower parts of the city, both forming a junction on the opposite side of the river near Trowse Station, whence the sewage would be conveyed to a point on Mr. Harvey’s estate at Crown Point, to the east of the old Whitlingham Road. The plan also comprised the completion of the drainage of the western part of the city, then unconnected with the main sewers. For the first part of the scheme £50,000 was required, and for the latter £30,000. On October 31st the Council adopted a recommendation of the Sanitary and River Committees, that it was desirable to try more fully the possibility of cleansing the river by flushing and sluicing or otherwise before proceeding to carry out Mr. Bazalgette’s report; that the City Engineer be instructed accordingly; and that immediate steps be taken to improve the drainage on the south side of the city, at a cost not exceeding £10,000. (_See_ April 21st, 1866.)

June 15th 1865

The first two-days’ show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association commenced in Chapel Field, Norwich. The society’s dinner was held at the Royal Hotel, and was presided over by the Marquis Townshend.

June 17th 1865

Died at Elm Lodge, near Hampton, Lord Charles FitzRoy, second son of the fourth Duke of Grafton. His lordship was born on February 28th, 1791, and married, in 1825, Anne, eldest daughter of George Augustus Henry, first Earl of Burlington. Lord Charles was at the battle of Corunna, and served in the Walcheren Expedition with the Guards. In 1811 he joined Lord Hill’s staff, and was present at the siege and capture of Badajoz, and at the battles of Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Othes, Toulouse, and Waterloo, and received the war medal with eight clasps. For two years he served with the army of occupation in France. His lordship sat in Parliament, as member for Thetford, from 1818 till the passing of the Reform Bill, and at the General Election which ensued was elected for Bury, in the Liberal interest. He was Vice-Chancellor of the Household from 1835 to 1839, and was also appointed a Privy Councillor. In four successive Parliaments he represented Bury, and resigned his seat in 1847.

July 1st 1865

The 5.30 p.m. express from London to Norwich had a narrow escape. On reaching a portion of the line near Harford Bridges, the engine, on running down the incline, left the metals, and, tearing up the permanent way for some distance, stopped on the wooden bridge which crosses the Yare a little below Old Lakenham. “One of the carriages was overturned, and the occupants, among whom was Lord Stafford, had to make their escape by climbing through the windows which were then uppermost.” None of the passengers were seriously hurt.

July 7th 1865

At a Liberal meeting held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, certain accusations founded upon letters received from Mr. John Bright, M.P., were made against Mr. Robert Edmond Chester Waters, one of the Conservative candidates for the representation of the city. The principal charges were that Mr. Waters (previously a Liberal) had been compelled to resign his membership of the Reform Club for cheating at cards, and that while he came before the Norwich electors as a Protestant Churchman, in Rome he professed to be a Roman Catholic. Mr. Waters declared these statements to be scandalous and false; and on the 8th announced that he had authorised legal proceedings to be taken against Sir William Foster and the Rev. George Gould for making imputations on his personal character. On the 10th a deputation, consisting of Messrs. H. S. Patteson, Edward Field, D. Dalrymple, and J. H. Tillett, proceeded to London to investigate at the Reform Club the truth of the allegations, and in the course of the day the following telegram was received simultaneously by Sir Samuel Bignold and Sir William Foster: “We have the minutes. They have been produced before us, and we find that it is true that Mr. Waters was accused of cheating at cards at the Reform Club, and unanimously called upon by the committee to resign to prevent expulsion, and further that he did, on receiving that communication, resign on the 23rd November, 1860.” The telegram was dated from the Reform Club, and signed by the deputation. In consequence of the telegram, Messrs. Fred Brown, J. B. Morgan, F. E. Watson, and Henry Ling issued a notice stating that they felt it their duty to withdraw their support from Mr. Waters as one of the candidates for the city. Mr. Waters thereupon stated that he would stand independently. The nomination took place at the Guildhall on the 11th. The other candidates were Sir William Russell and Mr. Edward Warner, Liberals; and Mr. Augustus Goldsmid, Conservative. The polling took place on the 12th, and was officially declared on the 13th, as follows:—Russell, 1,845; Warner, 1,838; Goldsmid, 1,466; Waters, 1,363. Mr. Waters, who was exceedingly popular with what the NORFOLK CHRONICLE described as “the lower order of Conservatives,” made a return visit to Norwich on October 10th, and was escorted by a torchlight procession round the city. Thirty thousand people assembled in the Market Place, the bells of St. Peter Mancroft were rung, and the late candidate, after making a complimentary call upon Sir Samuel Bignold, proceeded to the Norfolk Hotel and addressed from the window a dense crowd assembled in St. Giles’ Street. On the 11th he was entertained at dinner by the Eldon Club; and at St. Andrew’s Hall, on the 12th, was received with the utmost enthusiasm by a crowded audience. Mr. Waters, who was accompanied by Lord Henry Thynne and Sir Alfred Slade, was presented with a massive silver epergne, “by a very large number of the Conservatives of Norwich, as an expression of their cordial sympathy and regard, and in appreciation of the gallant and chivalrous spirit in which, under difficulties unprecedented, he fought the battle of the Conservative cause loyally, courteously, and fearlessly at the Parliamentary election for Norwich, 1865.” A “testimonial dinner” was given to Mr. Waters at the Norfolk Hotel on the evening of the 13th, when the Norwich Conservative Association was inaugurated. Upwards of 100 members were at once enrolled, and on the 14th Sir Samuel Bignold, in response to the request of a deputation, accepted the presidency.

July 8th 1865

A meeting of the independent electors of East Norfolk was held at the Swan Hotel, Norwich, for the purpose of selecting a candidate to contest the constituency in the interests of the supporters of the movement for the repeal of the Malt Tax. Mr. Clare Sewell Read, who had been for some time prominently identified with the party in favour of the repeal, was unanimously chosen. Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett attended the meeting and made a remarkable speech. If Mr. Read were nominated, he said, he would help him to the utmost of his power; and he added, “If you want money, if you want help, if you want what enthusiasm I can put into the cause, let your chairman write to me and I will respond with all my heart.” The nomination took place at the Shirehall on the 15th. Several times the proceedings were stayed and consultations held by the leaders of the respective parties, with the view of effecting a compromise. The candidates nominated were Mr. Edward Howes, Sir Thomas Beauchamp, and Col. Coke. Mr. Robert Leamon offered not to proceed with the nomination of Mr. Read if the Liberal party would pledge themselves to return to Parliament a Malt Tax repealer; in the absence of that assurance he nominated Mr. Read, whose candidature was seconded by Mr. H. S. Grimmer. It was subsequently agreed by the friends of Mr. Howes to permit the name of Mr. Read to appear upon the election cards and posters issued by the former. The poll was opened on the 18th, and was officially declared on the 20th, as follows:—Howes, 3,100; Read, 2,985; Beauchamp, 2,150; Coke, 1,994

July 11th 1865

The nomination of candidates for the representation of Yarmouth was held at the Town Hall. Sir E. H. K. Lacon, Bart., and Mr. J. Goodson, Conservatives, and Mr. Philip Vanderbyl and Mr. Brogden, liberals, were nominated. The polling took place on the 12th, and resulted as follows:—Lacon 828; Goodson, 784; Brogden, 634; Vanderbyl, 589. (_See_ March 20th, 1866.)

July 11th 1865

At Thetford, the Hon. Alexander Hugh Baring and Mr. Robert John Harvey Harvey, Conservatives, and Mr. Thomas Dakin (Alderman of London and Sheriff of Middlesex), Liberal, were nominated to represent the borough. The poll, on the 12th, resulted as follows:—Harvey, 193; Baring, 137; Dakin, 69.

July 12th 1865

Lord Stanley and the Hon. Frederick Walpole, Conservatives, and Sir T. Fowell Buxton, Liberal, were nominated for the representation of King’s Lynn. The polling, on the 13th, resulted in the return of Lord Stanley, 445 votes, and Sir T. Fowell Buxton, 401 votes. Mr. Walpole polled 339 votes.

July 12th 1865

Died at Herne Bay, aged 43 years, Mr. Samuel Peckworth Woodward, Ph.D., F.G.S., assistant in the Geological Department of the British Museum, and second son of Mr. Samuel Woodward, of Norwich. He was a member of several learned societies, and in 1845 was appointed professor of botany and geology at the Royal Agricultural College.

July 19th 1865

The nomination of candidates for West Norfolk took place at Swaffham. The Conservatives were Mr. William Bagge and the Hon. T. de Grey (the latter strongly opposed as “an excessive game preserver”); and the Liberals, Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart. (Conservative member for Cheltenham in 1847), and Mr. Brampton Gurdon. The poll was opened on the 22nd, and the following was the result: Bagge, 2,710; de Grey, 2,611; Jones, 2,133; Gurdon, 2,088. A petition against the return of the successful candidates was dismissed, owing to informality in the recognisances. Great disturbances took place at Swaffham, for which several persons were punished at the ensuing Quarter Sessions. Mr. de Grey, on his return to Merton, on the 24th, was most enthusiastically received at Watton and other places on the route.

July 26th 1865

The comic singer Vance—“the Great Vance”—made his first appearance in Norwich at St. Andrew’s Hall. “He is the original singer of the absurd ‘Slap Bang,’ and has better recommendations, but the judicious portion of the audience could not see enough in him to explain the great success he has achieved in the Metropolis.”

August 5th 1865

A reminiscence of the old convict days was forthcoming in a case tried before Lord Chief Baron Pollock at the Norfolk Assizes. Cornelius Bradnum, a fruit dealer, was indicted for being feloniously and unlawfully at large at Heckingham on February 6th, 1865, “he having been transported for the term of his natural life, in pursuance of a certain judgment against him at the Norfolk Assizes on July 21st, 1847, on an indictment for burglary.” The prisoner, in his defence, made a remarkable statement, to the effect that in consequence of his having given information of an intended mutiny of the convicts at Gibraltar, his sentence was mitigated to fifteen years. From Gibraltar he was sent to Swan River, Western Australia, where the Governor gave him his ticket of leave, and after “serving his ticket” he received a free pardon. He then went to Callao, in Peru. One evening, when standing on the Mole, he was kidnapped, put upon an American ship, and brutally ill-used and crippled. Sixty-five dollars had been paid for him, but as he was useless he was put ashore at Hamburgh, whence, after remaining some time in hospital, he came to England. Unfortunately, he had left at Callao the document conveying to him his free pardon. The prosecution denied that a free pardon had been granted. His lordship said it was for the prosecution to show that the prisoner’s statement was untrue, after using that statement against him as evidence. The statement must be taken as true until it was contradicted. It had not been contradicted, and, he added, turning to the jury, “It is for you to say whether you believe it or not. I must say I don’t see why you should not believe it, and why he is not entitled to a verdict of not guilty.” The jury acquitted the prisoner.

August 5th 1865

A large meeting of agriculturists was held at the Swan Hotel, Norwich, for the purpose of considering what steps should be taken to combat “a disease known as the Russian murrain, which had broken out among the cattle of Norfolk.” Mr. Clare Sewell Read, M.P., presided, and, in the course of the proceedings, alarming reports were given of the spread of the contagion and of the immediate steps that were necessary to arrest its progress. A deputation, consisting of Mr. Read, Mr. Steeds, Mr. W. Smith, and Mr. R. Leamon, was appointed to wait upon the Home Office, and at a committee meeting on the 9th Mr. Read reported what had taken place. It was resolved, on the motion of Sir Thomas Beauchamp, who headed the list with a donation of £100, that a public subscription be opened at once, and Professor Simonds, in a long address, showed that the disease was of foreign importation, and was known in Russia, whence it came, as rinderpest. At this meeting it was reported that in the neighbourhood of North Walsham alone losses to the extent of £1,000 and upwards had been sustained. Isolation of the herds and the slaughter of diseased animals were the means advocated for stamping out the murrain. A Norfolk Cattle Plague Association was at once formed, and at a large and influential meeting, held at St. Andrew’s Hall on the 12th, under the presidency of Mr. Read, whose great services at this crisis were acknowledged by the Earl of Leicester, resolutions were adopted (1) recommending to the consideration of the public the means suggested by Professor Simonds for dealing with the disease, and urging that no farmer should purchase any store stock in any market for the period of six weeks; (2) that a subscription be entered into for the purpose of meeting the losses sustained by those who should conform to the resolutions drawn up by the committee, and for defraying the expenses incurred in carrying out the objects of the meeting; and (3) that no person who did not subscribe to the amount of twopence in the pound on his assessment should participate in the relief. At this meeting the Earl of Leicester contributed a donation of £500. Meetings of the Cattle Plague Association were then held weekly, reports were presented upon the state of the disease in various parts of the county, and matters of detail received attention. On October 21st a public meeting was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, under the presidency of the Earl of Leicester, “to consider the desirability of closing all markets in the county of Norfolk.” Sir Thomas Beauchamp moved, and the Earl of Albemarle seconded, a resolution in favour of the adoption of this course, which was agreed to. During this month Mr. Read was appointed a member of the Royal Commission to inquire into the causes of cattle plague and to suggest remedies. The Commission recommended the slaughter of animals and the stringent prohibition of the passage of cattle across public roads, &c. At Norwich and elsewhere there were frequent magisterial proceedings against dealers and others for contravention of the Orders of Council; medical men and veterinary surgeons suggested many remedies for the disease, and quacks advertised their nostrums, but the end of the year found the fatal rinderpest more rampant than ever. Science seemed confounded by the insidious character of the outbreak, and precautionary measures appeared to be vain to prevent its extension. It was officially announced that from September 6th to December 20th compensation had been given in respect of 1,486 animals, to the amount of £9,448 3s. 11d. (_See_ February 23rd, 1866.)

August 8th 1865

A barque named the Edgar, of 600 tons burthen, built by Messrs. Fellows and Son, for the South American trade, was launched from their shipyard at Southtown, Great Yarmouth.

August 11th 1865

The Earl of Leicester issued to the tenants on his estate an address, in which he referred to an election circular sent out to them during his absence in Norway, the spirit of which he described as “a flagrant contradiction of the principles and practices that have been professed and followed on the Holkham estate for nearly a century.” His lordship had counselled not coercion in any form, but the adoption of every legitimate measure to achieve the return of Mr. Gurdon and Sir Willoughby Jones at the West Norfolk election; but the zeal of his agent (Mr. Shellabear) in carrying out instructions which were only indicated and not given in detail led him to issue a circular which had caused much scandal, the impolicy and unfittingness of which no one now saw more clearly than his lordship himself.

August 12th 1865

Died at Kew, Sir William Jackson Hooker, K.H., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c., Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. Sir William was a native of Norwich, where his father, Mr. Joseph Hooker, a manufacturer, took much interest in horticulture, and possessed a rich collection of succulent and other exotics. Hooker spent some of his earlier years in the study of agriculture with Mr. Robert Paul, of Starston Hall, but the death of a relative enabled him to devote himself to his favourite pursuit, natural history. With his brother, Mr. Joseph Hooker, the Rev. James Brown, and other naturalists, he thoroughly explored the rich district of the Norfolk Broads in the study of ornithology. He was the author of several works, and editor of the “Botanical Magazine.” Resigning the appointment of Regius Professor for the curatorship of the Royal Gardens at Kew, he received the honour of knighthood in 1835, and in 1845 had conferred upon him the degree of D.C.L. by the University of Oxford. He married a daughter of Mr. Dawson Turner, of Yarmouth. His eldest son, Dr. Hooker, F.L.S., was no less distinguished than his father for his valuable works in natural history and for the scientific explorations with which his name was associated.

August 13th 1865

Died at Southwell, the Ven. Archdeacon Wilkins, D.D. He was born at Norwich in 1785, and was the youngest son of Mr. William Wilkins, F.S.A., and brother of the Professor of Architecture in the Royal Academy. Educated at the Grammar School, Bury St. Edmund’s, under the headmastership of Becher, he entered Caius College, Cambridge, in 1803, and having received his degree, removed to Oxford to prosecute his favourite study of divinity. He was ordained at Norwich in 1808, and was ultimately presented to the vicarage of St. Mary’s, Nottingham, where he ministered single-handed to a population of 28,000. He was the author of “A History of the Destruction of Jerusalem,” and of several other works.

August 18th 1865

A sculling match, known as the “Great Lynn Sweepstakes,” was contested over the Ouse championship course in the Eau Brink Cut, a distance of 3,300 yards. The competitors were Robert Chambers, champion of the Tyne and ex-champion of the Thames; Harry Kelley, who just previously had wrested the championship of the Thames from his formidable North country rival; and Robert Cooper, of Newcastle. The sweepstakes amounted to £50, with £100 added by the Lynn Regatta Committee. The conditions provided that if three competed the winner should receive £200 and the second man £50, and if only two came to the post a first prize of £200 only would be given. The race lay between Cooper and Kelley alone. The former kept a slight lead, and as Kelley’s efforts to pass him were unavailing, he rowed past the winning-post a quarter of a length ahead. The referee decided that Kelley had won, disqualified Cooper on the ground that he had taken the other man’s water, and awarded second prize to Chambers. At a meeting presided over by the Mayor of Lynn (Mr. W. Monement), a protest was lodged by Cooper’s backers against the second prize being awarded to Chambers. The Mayor decided to withhold the second prize until the referee had been communicated with, and handed to Kelley a cheque for £200. Cooper’s protest was ultimately disallowed.

August 26th 1865

The 13th Hussars, with headquarters, arrived at Norwich Cavalry Barracks.

September 8th 1865

A prize-fight took place on Grimstone Common, between Pooley Mace and a man named Rackaby. After five rounds had been contested, the police stopped hostilities, and Rackaby’s party declining to resume the fight, the stakes were awarded to Mace.

September 30th 1865

Died at Clive House, Beckenham, Kent, in his 71st year, Lieut.-Col. Henry Alexander, 96th Foot. He was born at Caister, and entered the Army as ensign in the 28th Foot in June, 1811. He received the war medal with six clasps for Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, and Toulouse.

October 3rd 1865

The first Church Congress commenced at Norwich. The Congress sermon was preached at the Cathedral by the Archbishop of York, and the first general meeting was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, presided over by the Bishop of Norwich. The final meeting took place on the afternoon of the 5th, after which the members of Congress attended luncheon, given at the new bank by Mr. R. J. H. Harvey, M.P. Two thousand guests were present. On the morning of the 6th, the Bishop of Oxford preached the annual sermon at the Cathedral on behalf of the Five Religious Societies.

October 9th 1865

Died at the house of Mrs. Church, Lady Lane, Norwich, Bartholomew Gattey, “the eccentric but clever flute-player at the Theatre Royal.” For forty years he had scarcely been absent from his place in the orchestra of the theatres in the Norwich circuit, “a position to which he fondly clung, in spite of many most favourable offers of engagement that were made to him, and which, if accepted, would, no doubt, have resulted in his obtaining a position in the musical world of honour and emolument. At length a mind never very strong gave way, and he was obliged to have recourse to the assistance of his friends. Mr. Hewlett and other gentlemen got up a concert for him in December, 1863, and £50 was realised, which, with Mr. Gattey’s simple habits, was sufficient for his maintenance until his death.” He was a son of Mr. Gattey, a yarn manufacturer, and a native of Norwich, and had attained his 64th year.

October 14th 1865

“Died at his residence, Bury St. Edmund’s, Mr. Frederick Ladbrooke, portrait painter. The deceased was the youngest son of the late Mr. Robert Ladbrooke, one of the founders of the celebrated Society of Norfolk and Norwich Artists. He was a painter of considerable power.”

October 18th 1865

The ceremony of cutting the first sod of the East Norfolk Railway was performed on the estate of Mr. C. Jecks, Sheriff of Norwich, by Lady Suffield, in the presence of a large number of spectators. In the evening a dinner, attended by representatives of most of the principal families in the county, was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, in celebration of the event. Lord Suffield presided. (_See_ August 13th, 1870.)

October 21st 1865

“The Queen has been pleased to grant to Edward John Stracey, of Sprowston, Lieut.-Colonel of the Scots Fusilier Guards, her Royal licence and authority that he and his issue may, in compliance with a clause contained in the last will and testament of James Clitherow, take and use the name of Clitherow in addition to that of Stracey.”

October 25th 1865

A new lifeboat, named the James Pearce, was launched at Yarmouth. It was built at the cost of £350, subscribed by the artisans of Birmingham, and presented through the Royal National Lifeboat Institution to the Caister station.

October 30th 1865

Died at Hilgay, aged 110 years (as was originally stated), Mr. John Naylor, formerly landlord of the Crown Hotel, Downham Market. An amended notice, published on November 18th, says: “The late Mr. John Naylor, who died on the 30th ult., and was supposed by his eldest son to be _only_ 110 years of age, appears from the parish register of Welney to be 117, he having been born on the 29th of May, 1748. In 1825 the deceased retired from his business as a publican, he having kept the Crown at Downham and the George and Dragon at Hilgay in succession, and had since lived on a small property of his own in the latter village. He was always a smart, active man, and constant in taking his walk up to October, 1860. Since that time he had been confined to his house, but used to sit up in his chair for some portion of the day until June, 1864, when he did so for the last time. His sight had failed him, but his hearing was so good that he could distinguish the voices of his friends, and he was rational until within six weeks of his death.”

November 1st 1865

Died of apoplexy, at his residence, Acton Green, Middlesex, John Lindley, F.R.S., Ph.D., and formerly Professor of Botany at University College. He was born at Catton, near Norwich, in 1799, and was the son of a nurseryman. His first literary effort, after devoting much of his early youth to the practical details of botany, was the translation of Richard’s “Analyse de Fruit” from the French, and the contribution of some papers to the Transactions of the Linnæan Society. Afterwards he proceeded to London, where he was engaged by Mr. Loudon to assist in the production of the “Encyclopædia of Plants.” In 1832 he published his “Introduction to Systematic and Physiological Botany,” but his _chef d’œuvre_ was the “Vegetable Kingdom.” For more than a quarter of a century Dr. Lindley filled the chair of Botany at University College, London, and in 1860 was appointed examiner in the University of London. He was a member of several learned bodies, and edited the horticultural department of the “Gardeners’ Chronicle” from its commencement in January, 1841, to the time of his death.

November 7th 1865

Lord Hastings, master of the East Norfolk Foxhounds, was presented with his portrait in oil, subscribed for by 400 gentlemen of the Hunt. The portrait was painted by Mr. Eddis, and his lordship was depicted in hunting dress, mounted on Archer, his favourite hunter. Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart., made the presentation, on behalf of the subscribers.

November 8th 1865

The Marquis and Marchioness Townshend, whose marriage had taken place a few weeks previously, were welcomed with great enthusiasm on their return to Rainham, and were presented by the tenantry with a handsome silver epergne.

November 9th 1865

Mr. William Peter Nichols was elected Mayor, and Mr. William Jary Cubitt appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

December 2nd 1865

Died at Necton Hall, Colonel William Mason. He was the head of an old county family, whose head, Paul Miller Mason, a citizen of London, built Necton Hall in the time of Henry VII. Col. Mason served the office of High Sheriff in 1849, was for many years a chairman of Quarter Sessions at Swaffham, and was Lieut.-Colonel of the East Norfolk Militia.

December 4th 1865

The Prince and Princess of Wales left Sandringham, on a visit to Lord and Lady Suffield, at Gunton Park. Their Royal Highnesses travelled by special train from Wolferton to Lynn and thence to East Dereham, where they were received by Lord Suffield, Viscount Hamilton, and the Hon. Harbord Harbord. A guard of honour was formed by the 15th Norfolk Volunteer Company, under the command of Capt. Bulwer, and their Royal Highnesses, entering a carriage drawn by four greys, proceeded along Norwich Road and the Market Place. Three triumphal arches were erected in the town, which was handsomely decorated, guns were fired, and the church bells rung, and in the evening there was a display of fireworks. After leaving Dereham, the Royal visitors proceeded by way of Swanton, Bylaugh, and Bawdeswell to Reepham, where the Aylsham Volunteers, commanded by Capt. Scott, provided a guard of honour. At Aylsham their Royal Highnesses were welcomed with great enthusiasm, and at Gunton Park gates the North Walsham corps, commanded by Major Duff, mounted a guard of honour. On the 5th and 6th the Prince shot over the estate, and on the evening of the last-named day a dinner and ball were given at the hall. On the 7th his Royal Highness attended a meet of the East Norfolk Foxhounds, and on the 8th shot on the Hanworth side of the hall. The visit terminated on the 9th. The Prince and Princess had arranged to honour Lord Sondes by attending luncheon at Elmham Hall, but, owing to intelligence received of the critical condition of the King of the Belgians, the visit was postponed. Their Royal Highnesses left Elmham station by special train, and arrived at Sandringham the same afternoon.

December 7th 1865

The Rev. J. M. Bellew gave public readings from the great poets and other authors, with organ accompaniments, at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich. He was described as “a perfect master of the elocutionary art.”

December 20th 1865

Died at Yarmouth, in his 71st year, Mr. Edward Cubitt, of Honing Hall. He served in the Peninsular War with the 4th Dragoons, was at the retreat from Burgos, and received the medal with clasps for Vittoria, Pampeluna, and Toulouse.

December 26th 1865

The Christmas pantomime at Norwich Theatre was entitled, “Camaralzaman and Badoura, or the Little God of Love and the Good Fairy of Lake Lovely.”