The Foxearth and District Local History Society
1864 Norfolk Chronicle newspaper Selections

January 6th 1864

The mild weather of Christmas week was succeeded by frost of great intensity. On this day the thermometer stood at 14 degrees, and the river above the New Mills at Norwich was frozen. Large numbers of golden plover made their appearance in the neighbourhood of Thetford, and an extraordinary quantity of wild fowl came within the bounds of Shadwell, where Sir Robert Buxton prohibited their being shot or molested.

January 9th 1864

Early in the morning intelligence was received at Norwich that the Princess of Wales had, on the previous evening, given birth to a son (Prince Albert Victor). Throughout the day rejoicing peals were rung upon the bells of St. Peter Mancroft, the Royal Standard was displayed at the Guildhall, and on the 19th the Corporation sent a congratulatory address to the Queen and to the Prince and Princess of Wales.

January 19th 1864

Died at Norwich, Mr. George Fisher, a member of the talented and well-known local family of that name, and of the Norfolk and Suffolk Company of Comedians. On retiring from the stage, he conducted a school at Swaffham, and subsequently resided at Lynn, where he was for many years known as an enthusiastic votary of the violin, and a useful member of the band of the Musical Union. He was author of a curious and voluminous work, entitled, “A Companion and Key to the History of England,” printed by Skill, of Swaffham, and published in 1832.

January 20th 1864

Died at Hove, Brighton, Captain J. J. B. E. Frere, R.N. He entered the Navy in 1826, and had been for nearly twenty-five years engaged on active service—against the pirates in the Mediterranean, in the operations on the coast of Syria, in the Pacific with Lord George Paulet, and as commissioner for the Government of the Sandwich Islands, while held temporarily under the British flag.

January 21st 1864

The hearing of the action, Cox _v._ Wise, arising out of the inundation in Marshland, was resumed in the Court of Queen’s Bench, and, after three days’ argument for the rule in support of the verdict, and against the rule to set it aside, the case was closed. Their lordships reserved judgment until May 24th, when Mr. Justice Mellor held that the Middle Level Commissioners were trustees for public purposes, acting without reward and deriving no tolls from the works; they had not the means of raising funds except for the specific performance of the objects of their private Act. He was of opinion that they were not liable for damages, and that the rule must be made absolute. Mr. Justice Blackburn was of the contrary opinion; he thought the plaintiff had a right to his verdict, and that the rule should be discharged. Lord Chief Justice Cockburn thought the defendants were not liable, and said that the rule must be made absolute. Rule absolute accordingly. (_See_ June 9th, 1865.)

February 8th 1864

Died, aged 91, Mr. John Bennett, for many years resident in Norwich. “The deceased wore a pigtail to the day of his death and was the last of the old school in the city.”

February 13th 1864

It was announced that an attempt was being made to form a religious order or brotherhood in Norwich, and that a house on Elm Hill, formerly occupied by Mr. Elisha De Hague, had been purchased for conversion into a monastery. Shortly afterwards a party of five brethren, headed by “the notorious Brother Ignatius,” took up their quarters in the newly-acquired premises, and, it was asserted, had the countenance, if not the active support, of advanced High Churchmen in the city, under whose auspices at this date lectures were delivered “in defence of Church principles,” one of the lecturers being the Rev. Dr. A. F. Littledale. On February 24th, the “Benedictine chapel,” known as the “priory of St. Mary and Dunstan,” was dedicated by Ignatius. From this date scenes of disorder and riot were of frequent occurrence in the neighbourhood of the monastery, and directly and indirectly the existence of the confraternity gave rise to several remarkable incidents. During Easter week the “monks” made daily visits to St. Lawrence’ church, which had already been brought into notoriety by the ritualistic practices of the rector, the Rev. E. A. Hillyard. There daily Communion was celebrated, and the brethren walking in procession to and from the church were assailed and insulted by the mob. The protection of the police was demanded by Ignatius, and the magistrates were frequently engaged in the hearing of cases of riot and assault arising out of the proceedings at Elm Hill and St. Lawrence’. A spirit of unrest manifested itself in other directions. On April 6th a person calling himself the Baron De Camin, who stated that he was an ex-priest of the Romish Church, delivered, at the Victoria Hall, St. Andrew’s, a lecture full of scurrilous and indecent observations. A scene of great tumult ensued; the gas was extinguished, and, under cover of darkness, the “baron” escaped. Another lecturer appeared on the 14th and 15th, in the person of Signor (formerly Father) Allessandro Gavazzi, who delivered orations at St. Andrew’s Hall, on “Romish Encroachments at Home” and “Garibaldi and Italy’s Impending Future.” Whilst the High Church party were taking an aggressive stand in the city, a section of the Low Church party in the county, led by the Rev. W. Haslam, of Buckenham, were seeking, under the name of “Revivalism,” to introduce Nonconformist methods into the services of the Church. Meanwhile official notice was taken of Mr. Hillyard’s proceedings. At a meeting of the Board of Guardians, on April 28th, it was agreed, “That the Rev. E. A. Hillyard having identified himself with certain persons calling themselves monks, whom he has allowed to participate in the services of his church, no longer holds the confidence of the Board, and is called upon to resign his situation as chaplain of the Norwich Workhouse.” Mr. Hillyard declined to vacate the office, and a deputation of the Board waited upon the Bishop, who expressed strong disapproval of the reverend gentleman’s action. A meeting of the parishioners of St. Lawrence’ passed a resolution on May 6th: “That this vestry views with grief and indignation the manner in which Divine worship has been performed of late, particularly as regards the dressing of the Communion table, and the minister allowing persons calling themselves monks to take a prominent part in the performance of the services.” The resolution was numerously signed by the parishioners and presented to the Bishop. St. Gregory’s church, during the incumbency of the Rev. W. B. Sharpe, became a centre of ritualism, and on June 9th advantage was taken, on the appointment of the new incumbent, the Rev. J. Wortley, to petition the Archdeacon of Norwich to sanction the removal of “a floral cross and other floral decorations from the chancel and the candlesticks from the Communion table, of monograms and emblems recently painted on the chancel steps, and of the curtains and drapery from the walls of the chancel, and to order the restoration of the Commandments, the Belief, and the Lord’s Prayer in their place”; and the minister was requested “to discontinue the weekly offering, as it was strongly objected to by many of the parishioners.” On August 23rd Mr. Wortley announced that many of the objectionable ornaments had been removed; and on August 27th it was stated that the English Church Union had resolved to raise a special fund to meet expenses that might be incurred by Mr. Smith, churchwarden, in legally protesting against the action which had led to their removal. On June 27th a meeting of the supporters of the district schools of the associated parishes of St. Peter Mancroft, St. John Maddermarket, St. Gregory, St. Lawrence, and St. Margaret, resolved “That the Rev. E. A. Hillyard had entirely forfeited the confidence of the committee, by mixing himself up with certain persons calling themselves monks, and Mr. Henry Browne finding it impossible, under the circumstances, to collect subscriptions, had therefore refused to continue to act with Mr. Hillyard, either as treasurer, secretary, or manager.” Mr. Hillyard upon this decision severed his connection with the association, but refused to accede to a request, signed by some of the leading clergy in Norwich and Norfolk, on July 2nd, to discontinue his practices at St. Lawrence’ or to comply with the wishes of the Bishop. On August 17th the Guardians passed a resolution prohibiting his further attendance at the Workhouse; and on October 25th Sir John Walsham, the Poor-Law Inspector for the district, held an inquiry at the Guildhall into his conduct. The Poor-Law Board, on December 14th, intimated to the Guardians that they had dismissed Mr. Hillyard from the chaplaincy. The Elm Hill monastery was closed in May, 1866, and the building work of a proposed new chapel to be erected by Ignatius suspended. (_See_ January 16th, 1869.)

February 22nd 1864

Died at Sidcup, Kent, in his 96th year, Mr. Edward Smyth, formerly agent in Norwich of the Bank of England. His early career was spent in the Army. He served at the fall of Seringapatam, in 1799, with the 25th Light Dragoons, who, at Mullavelly, routed the cavalry of Tippoo Sahib, thereby enabling Lord Harris to bring to a successful termination his siege operations against that important fortress. Mr. Smith afterwards served with the Duke of Wellington in that Indian campaign which ended with the famous battles of Assaye and Urgam.

March 8th 1864

The agitation for the repeal of the Malt Tax was re-opened with increased vigour at a large meeting of West Norfolk farmers, held at the Town Hall, Lynn, under the presidency of the High Sheriff (Mr. H. Lee Warner). A resolution was passed affirming that the tax was unjust in principle, utterly opposed to the Free Trade policy adopted on the repeal of the Corn Laws, and most injurious to British farmers as producers of barley. Members of Parliament were urged to support its repeal.

March 9th 1864

Sir Henry Stracey announced to the electors of Yarmouth his intention of retiring from the representation of the borough.

March 10th 1864

The Mayor of Yarmouth (Mr. R. Steward), who, for the fourth time, had held that office, was presented with a piece of plate, valued at 200 gs., in appreciation of his public services and his private worth.

April 5th 1864

The church of St. John Maddermarket, Norwich, was re-opened by the Bishop of Norwich. Extensive repairs and restoration had been carried out, under the direction of Messrs. Elmslie, Franey, and Haddon, of London, at the cost of £1,431.

April 9th 1864

“Col. Black, Chief Constable of the county, has accepted the command of the Norwich Battalion of Volunteers, as offered him by the Lord Lieutenant, on the retirement of Lieut.-Col. Brett.”

April 22nd 1864

Died at his residence, Prince of Wales Road, Norwich, Mr. David Hodgson, artist. He was the son of Mr. Charles Hodgson. “The names of both father and son are connected with the list of local celebrities in Art, in which may be included the names of Crome, Vincent, Stark, and Joseph Stannard.” David Hodgson excelled in architectural subjects, which he painted with great care and truthfulness of detail.

April 26th 1864

The marriage of Viscount Powerscourt and Lady Julia Coke, eldest daughter of the Earl and Countess of Leicester, was solemnised at St. George’s church, Hanover Square.

April 27th 1864

The first meeting of the Norwich Geological Society was held under the presidency of the Rev. J. Gunn, F.G.S.

May 5th 1864

The Bill for the projected East Norfolk Railway was considered before a Committee of the House of Commons. It was strongly opposed by the Yarmouth Haven and Pier Commissioners, and by the North Walsham and Dilham Canal Commissioners, as offering unfair competition with water communication in that part of the county. (_See_ October 18th, 1865.)

May 16th 1864

Mr. Edmund Rosenthal’s grand English opera and burlesque company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre. The _artistes_ included Madame Haigh-Dyer, Miss Ada Taylor, Miss Hodgson, Miss Brooke, Miss Alessandri, Miss Bronti, Miss Mills, Miss Shepherd, Miss Tempest, and Miss Marian Taylor; Mr. W. Parkinson, Mr. J. Manley, Mr. Tempest, Mr. Warden, Mr. Bentley, Mr. Melville, Mr. R. Arthur, Mr. Smith, Mr. Arnott, Mr. Morgan, and Mr. Edmund Rosenthal. The operas produced were “Maritana,” “Lucia di Lammermoor,” &c., and the burlesque “Prince Amabel.”

May 19th 1864

The Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, was sold by Messrs. Spelman, at the Auction Mart, London, for the sum of £4,000.

May 24th 1864

The Queen’s birthday was observed at Norwich as a general holiday. The 18th Hussars, the Norfolk Light Horse, the Artillery and Rifle Volunteers, and the Cadet Corps were reviewed in Chapel Field; the officers were entertained at luncheon at the Guildhall, and the Volunteers at the Corn Hall; and at night the Mayor and Miss Springfield gave a ball at St. Andrew’s Hall.

May 30th 1864

Died at his seat, Raveningham Hall, Sir Edmund Bacon, premier baronet of England. Born in 1779, he was the eldest son of the eighth baronet, by Anne, eldest daughter of Sir William Beauchamp Proctor, Bart., of Langley Park. He was educated at Rugby, and succeeded to the baronetcy in 1820. In 1801 he married his cousin, Mary Anne Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Dashwood Bacon, of Ottery St. Mary, Devon, who died in 1820, leaving two sons and three daughters. Sir Edmund served the office of High Sheriff of Norfolk in 1826, and was a magistrate and Deputy-Lieutenant for the county. He was succeeded in his title and estates by his nephew, a son of Mr. Nicholas Bacon, for many years resident in Norwich.

June 2nd 1864

Died at his residence, Tombland, Norwich, Mr. Roger Kerrison, aged 61. He had for some time been in ill-health, and five weeks before his death, while superintending the cutting down of some timber, sustained a fall and received a severe shock. Mr. Kerrison was, in many respects, a remarkable personage. He was the son of Mr. Allday Kerrison, and was educated for the law, a profession he continued to practise until his decease, although a large accession of fortune on the death of his uncle, Mr. Matthew Kerrison, of Ranworth, twenty years previously, had placed him in independent circumstances. Mr. Kerrison held several important public appointments, but he was more widely known by reason of his connection with the Norwich Triennial Musical Festival, of which he was for some years the active honorary secretary. In politics he was Conservative, but by no means a prejudiced partisan, and he never scrupled to act independently when he deemed it right to do so. He was a bachelor, and the bulk of his fortune went to his brother, Mr. Allday Kerrison, a partner in the Crown Bank, Norwich.

June 3rd 1864

Died, in his 78th year, Mr. William Johnson Fox, for many years member of Parliament for Oldham, and popularly known as “the Norwich Weaver Boy.”

June 7th 1864

The 18th Hussars left Norwich for Shorncliffe, prior to their embarkation for India. This was the first regiment which departed from the city by train.

June 8th 1864

The annual show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association was held at Lynn, and was visited by upwards of 14,000 persons. Mr. R. J. H. Harvey was president for the year.

June 18th 1864

Died, near Christchurch, New Zealand, aged 59, the Ven. Octavius Mathias, Archdeacon of Akaron and formerly vicar of Horsford. He was one of the first to take an interest in the foundation of Canterbury Cathedral, New Zealand, and was elected one of the capitular clergy.

July 5th 1864

A barque, named the Oriental, was launched from Mr. J. W. Rust’s shipyard at Yarmouth. The vessel, which was intended for the China trade, was 115 feet long, 24 feet beam, 15 ft. 8 inches in depth, and 320 tons burthen.

July 9th 1864

“An agreement has been entered into for the purchase, by the Provincial Banking Corporation, of the business of the East of England Bank, an unlimited joint stock bank established in 1836, with head office at Norwich and branches at Yarmouth, Lynn, North Walsham, Fakenham, East Dereham, Swaffham, Bungay, Halesworth, and Harleston, and agencies at Wymondham, Wells, and Hingham.” The city was startled on the 20th by the rumour that the Bank had suspended payment. “On those who had accounts at the Bank going to that establishment, the doors were found to be closed, and a printed notice was exhibited in the windows to the effect that the directors regretted to intimate that they were compelled to suspend business. Up to the hour of closing on the previous day the directors, after having resolved to suspend payment, continued to receive the money of unsuspecting customers.” A few days afterwards was issued a statement, from which it appeared that the Bank’s liabilities were £576,963 7s. 6d., and assets £453,256 5s. 3d., leaving a deficit of £123,707 2s. 3d. Meetings of the shareholders were held, at which resolutions were passed in favour of registering the company under the Companies Act, 1862, with the view to a voluntary winding up. On August 13th it was announced that the Provincial Banking Company had issued a circular to the late customers of the Bank, stating “that being satisfied there was a probability of the customers being paid in full, they had authorised the branch managers at once to give credit to each customer of the East of England Bank in his pass-book for the full amount of the balance due to him on his current account with the East of England Bank.” Messrs. Harveys and Hudsons, immediately after the issue of the circular, offered like terms. Dividends were, in due course, paid to the creditors of the Bank. In July, 1866, it was stated that the liquidators had announced “a further dividend of 2s. 6d. in the pound, which will make 20s. in the pound distributed, exclusive of interest, payment of which is postponed.”

July 23rd 1864

Died at the Palace Hotel, Buckingham Gate, London, Admiral Bertie Cornelius Cator, younger brother of Mr. John Cator, of Beckenham, Kent, and of Woodbastwick. He entered the Navy in 1800, under his uncle, Captain Albemarle Bertie, and was actively employed early in his professional career in the capture of privateers in the Mediterranean. In 1810 he assisted at the taking of the Isle of France; commanded the Actæon on the coast of America in the attack on the enemy’s barracks in Lynn Haven Bay in 1813, and participated in various other services. After gaining post rank, he was not employed afloat. He accepted retirement in 1846.

July 29th 1864

Merton Park was the scene of great rejoicing, on the coming of age of the Hon. Thomas de Grey. Seven hundred cottagers and labourers were entertained at dinner, and Lord and Lady Walsingham received a large number of personal friends in a pavilion erected near the famous Merton oak. At luncheon Lord Ashburton proposed the health of Mr. de Grey, which was drunk with great enthusiasm. The day’s festivities concluded with a display of fireworks. On the 30th Lord and Lady Walsingham gave a ball to 150 tenants on the Merton estate, and on the 31st the celebration ended with a servants’ ball.

August 26th 1864

Two troops of the 16th Lancers arrived at Norwich Barracks.

August 28th 1864

St. George’s Brewery, Norwich, and 40 public-houses were offered for sale by Messrs. Spelman. Messrs. Youngs, Crawshay, and Youngs were the purchasers, at the sum of £15,300.

September 11th 1864

Died at Norwich, aged 81, Henry Drane, for thirty-six years proprietor of the Telegraph coach.

September 19th 1864

A prize-fight for £5 took place near Lynn, between Pooley Mace and Grey. Mace was declared the victor, after a contest which lasted 35 minutes.

October 4th 1864

The Yarmouth Town Council, by a majority of 25 to 11, adopted the Public House Closing Act, 1864.

October 8th 1864

The first sod of the West Norfolk Junction Railway was turned by Miss Ellen Simpson, daughter of Mr. Lightly Simpson, the chairman of the company. Many persons travelled to Heacham to take part in the proceedings. (_See_ January 8th, 1866.)

October 11th 1864

Died, Captain Becher, “the well-known sportsman and father of steeplechase riders, whose deeds in the pigskin some 30 years back have immortalised him in the annals of that sport.” Captain Becher was born in Norfolk, and was the son of a farmer, “who was very conspicuous as a horseman and the last of the leather breeches school.”

October 16th 1864

A new screw steamer, the Ontario, 3,200 tons, Captain Brooklin, upon her first voyage, from Shields to Alexandria, laden with coals and iron, struck upon Happisburgh Sand. Three steam tugs and the Caister lifeboat proceeded to her assistance, and her cargo was thrown overboard, but every effort made to get her off proved unavailing. On the 17th the weather became very threatening, and the lifeboat took off 56 coal heavers, but the captain and officers and 86 of the crew determined to remain with the vessel. During the night the storm increased, and the crew, apparently in great distress, sent up rockets and burned blue lights. The Yarmouth lifeboatmen were implored by the ship’s agent, Mr. Butler, to go to the ship, but in vain. They refused to launch the lifeboat unless they were paid from £400 to £500, saying that the steam tugs had begun the work and had better finish it. The Caister lifeboat stood by the vessel, which, by the 20th, had so settled down that it was hopeless to attempt to get her off. On this day 68 of the crew left in a lifeboat belonging to the steamer, but the captain and officers declined to desert her. They were, however, compelled to leave on the 22nd, when she became a total wreck, and was offered for sale. The original value of the Ontario was £120,000.

October 21st 1864

The church of St. Nicholas, Yarmouth, was opened after restoration, at the cost of about £6,000. The sermon was preached by the Bishop of Oxford, and at the luncheon held subsequently, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. R. Steward), the company included the Bishops of Norwich and Oxford, the Bishop of British Columbia, Lord Sondes (High Steward of the borough), and many other distinguished guests.

November 9th 1864

Mr. Charles Edward Tuck was elected Mayor, and Mr. Charles Jecks appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

November 9th 1864

Died at Keswick, near Norwich, in his 90th year, Mr. Hudson Gurney. He was the eldest son of Mr. Richard Gurney, who died at Keswick in 1811. Educated by Dr. Thomas Young, of scientific celebrity, he became connected early in life with the great banking firm of the Gurneys, of which he was for many years senior partner, as well as with the noted London brewery of Barclay and Co., his mother being the daughter and heiress of Mr. David Barclay, of Youngbury, Herts. In 1809 he married Margaret, daughter of Robert Barclay, of Ury, descended from the celebrated Barclay, the Apologist for the Quakers. Mrs. Gurney died at Keswick on December 16th, 1855. In politics Mr. Gurney was, in many respects, decidedly Conservative, though on some points he held opinions more in accordance with the most advanced Liberalism, and, as a perfectly independent member, allied himself to no party in particular. His Parliamentary career commenced in 1812, when he was elected for Shaftesbury; from the year 1816 he represented Newport, Hants., in six successive Parliaments. In 1835 he served the office of High Sheriff for the county of Norfolk. He was a man of high literary attainments, and was vice-president of the Society of Antiquaries, a Fellow of the Royal and Linnæan Societies, vice-president of the Norwich Museum, the Literary Institute, and of the Norfolk and Norwich Archæological Society. As an author his chief production was probably the beautiful poem in English verse under the title of “Cupid and Psyche,” a mythological tale from the “Golden Ass” of Apuleius; in 1801 it had reached a third edition, and was afterwards reprinted in Mr. Davenport’s “Poetical Register.” He also published, for private distribution, in 1843, a translation into English verse of the “Orlando Furioso” of Ludovico Ariosto; and in 1847, in a letter to Mr. Dawson Turner, “Proofs that Norwich, and not Caistor, was the Venta Icenorum.” In his latter years, confined almost entirely to his own residence, “he reversed in his hours the usual custom, amusing himself with his books and writings till four or five o’clock in the morning, and, of course, rising comparatively late in the day.” His estate, real and personal included, was valued at £1,200,000.

November 9th 1864

The Lynn Town Council resolved to put an end to the absurd and obnoxious impost known as “the Lady Mayoresses’ Pin Money.” “For many years the custom has prevailed in the town of the constables (who perform no other duties) going round to all the inhabitants in October and November and collecting from all who were foolish enough to pay it a kind of blackmail, under the ridiculous title of the Lady Mayoresses’ Pin Money, pretending that it was legally payable under the charters, and that those who did not pay would be summoned before the magistrates or the County Court. It appears that the custom has grown out of the collection of fines for non-attendance at the Court Leet held annually by the Mayor as Lord of the Manor; but for many generations past no such attendance has been either any use or capable of enforcement. The fines have also completely lapsed, and those who collect the ‘pin money’ are completely ignorant of its origin. The pretence has been that the money was to buy a piece of plate for the Mayoress, but in reality the greater part of it has been appropriated by the collectors themselves, and of the many pounds obtained not more than some fifty shillings annually found its way into the borough fund.”

November 12th 1864

“There appears to be some probability that the absurd system of inspection of weights and measures at Lynn by a ‘jury of headboroughs’ going round the town in a posse and discharging their functions in such a manner that the innocent only are punished and the guilty easily escape detection, is about to come to an end. Several persons have refused to admit the headboroughs on their premises, and others have declined to pay the fines imposed on them by the ‘jury’; and as the authority of this jury is based on ancient charters of very doubtful legal force, and there is no prospect of that authority being respected or enforced, the jury have refused to be sworn in again on the Court Leet by which they are appointed. It may be hoped, therefore, that the farce has come to an end, and that very shortly a proper and efficient officer will be appointed under the provisions of the Weights and Measures Act.”

November 14th 1864

The newly-erected chancel of St. Mark’s church, Lakenham, Norwich, built at the cost of about £1,000, was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich.

November 24th 1864

A severe gale occurred off the Norfolk coast. Many shipping casualties were reported. The screw steamer William Hutt, 530 tons, employed as a transport during the Crimean War, was lost off Yarmouth with her crew of sixteen hands, whilst on a voyage from Sunderland to London, with coals.

December 17th 1864

“Mr. Thomas W. Rutland, carpenter, West Wymer Street, Norwich, has invented a very ingenious means of communication between the passengers and guard in a railway train. It has the additional advantage of acting also as an extra break when required. By its use a passenger can at once communicate with both guard and driver, and at the same time a signal is exhibited which shows from what carriage the alarm is given.”

December 20th 1864

At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, a communication was received from the Dean and Chapter as to the giving up of their interest in Mousehold Heath, with the view of enabling the Council to convert the Heath into a people’s park.

December 26th 1864

The Christmas “burlesque and comic pantomime” produced at Norwich Theatre was written by F. C. Burnand, and entitled, “Snowdrop, King Bonbon, and the Seven Elves, or the Magic Mirror and the Fatal Sewing Machine.” At Sanger’s Circus, on the Castle Meadow, was produced “the equestrian pantomime,” entitled, “Jack the Giant Killer, or Harlequin and the Fairies of the Crystal Fountain.” A great novelty at the Christmas Fair was “the striking feature of a roundabout worked by a steam engine, which at the same time turns a barrel organ.”

December 30th 1864

Died at Dunston, John Fish, aged 100 years and 10 months.